Études de validation

Question BERGERON, L., SMOLLA, N., BERTHIAUME, C., RENAUD, J., BRETON, J.J., ST.-GEORGES, M., MORIN, P., ZAVAGLIA, E., LABELLE, R., (2017). Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility of the Dominic Interactive for Adolescents- Revised: A DSM-5–Based Self-Report Screen for Mental Disorders, Borderline Personality Traits, and Suicidality. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 62, (3): 211-222.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objectives: The Dominic Interactive for Adolescents–Revised (DIA-R) is a multimedia self-report screen for 9 mental disorders, borderline personality traits, and suicidality defined by the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). This study aimed to examine the reliability and the validity of this instrument.

Methods: French- and English-speaking adolescents aged 12 to 15 years (N ¼ 447) were recruited from schools and clinical settings in Montreal and were evaluated twice. The internal consistency was estimated by Cronbach alpha coefficients and the test-retest reliability by intraclass correlation coefficients. Cutoff points on the DIA-R scales were determined by using clinically relevant measures for defining external validation criteria: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children, the Beck Hopelessness Scale, and the Abbreviated-Diagnostic Interview for Borderlines. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses provided accuracy estimates (area under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio) to evaluate the ability of the DIA-R scales to predict external criteria.

Results: For most of the DIA-R scales, reliability coefficients were excellent or moderate. High or moderate accuracy estimates from ROC analyses demonstrated the ability of the DIA-R thresholds to predict psychopathological conditions. These thresholds were generally capable to discriminate between clinical and school subsamples. However, the validity of the obsessions/compulsions scale was too low.

Conclusions: Findings clearly support the reliability and the validity of the DIA-R. This instrument may be useful to assess a wide range of adolescents’ mental health problems in the continuum of services. This conclusion applies to all scales, except the obsessions/compulsions one.

 

RÉSUMÉ

 

Objectifs : Le Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents-Révisé (DIA-R) est un instrument multimédia auto-administré pour dépister 9 troubles mentaux, les traits de la personnalité limite et la suicidalité tels que définis dans le Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 5e édition (DSM-5). Cette étude visait à examiner la fidélité et la validité de cet instrument.

Méthodes : Des adolescents francophones et anglophones, âgés de 12 à 15 ans (N ¼ 447), ont été recrutés dans des écoles et des établissements cliniques de Montréal et évalués à deux reprises. La cohérence interne a été estimée par des coefficients alpha de Cronbach, et la fidélité test-retest, par des coefficients de corrélation intraclasse. Les seuils sur les échelles du DIA-R ont été déterminés en utilisant des mesures cliniquement pertinentes pour définir les critères externes de validation: l’Échelle des troubles de l’humeur et de la schizophrénie pour les enfants d’âge scolaire, l’Échelle de désespoir de Beck et l’Entrevue diagnostique abrégée pour la personnalité limite. Les analyses de la fonction d’efficacité du récepteur (FER) ont été utilisées pour estimer les indicateurs de performance (aire sous la courbe FER, sensibilité, spécificité, rapport de vraisemblance) afin d’évaluer la capacité des échelles du DIA-R à prédire les critères externes.

Résultats : La majorité des échelles du DIA-R présentent des coefficients de fidélité excellents ou modérés. Selon les analyses FER, la performance élevée ou modérée du DIA-R démontre la capacité des seuils à prédire les conditions psychopathologiques.

Toutefois, la validité de l’échelle des obsessions/compulsions est insuffisante.

Conclusions : Les résultats appuient clairement la fidélité et la validité du DIA-R. Cet instrument peut être utile pour évaluer de nombreux problèmes de santé mentale, chez les adolescents, dans le continuum des services. Cette conclusion s’applique à toutes les échelles du DIA-R, à l’exception de celle des obsessions/compulsions.

Keywords

Dominic Interactive for Adolescents–Revised, self-report screen, DSM-5, mental disorders, borderline traits, suicidality, reliability, validity

Question Kuijpers, R. C. W. M., Otten, R., Vermulst, A. A., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Carta, M., Goelitz, D., Keyes, K., Koç, C., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Engels, R. C. M. E., & Kovess, V. (2015, August 3). Reliability, Factor Structure, and Measurement Invariance of the Dominic Interactive Across European Countries: Cross-Country Utility of a Child Mental Health Self-Report. Psychological Assessment. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000139
AnswerABSTRACT

 

Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children’s mental health. However, use of young children’s self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV–based child mental health self-report questionnaire, has unique characteristics that may make it preeminently appropriate for usage in cross-country comparisons. This study aimed to determine scale score reliabilities (omega) of the Dominic Interactive in a sample of 8,135 primary school children, ages 6–11 years old, in 7 European countries, to confirm the proposed 7-scale factor structure, and to test for measurement invariance of scale and item scores across countries. Omega reliability values for scale scores were good to high in every country, and the factor structure was confirmed for all countries. A thorough examination of measurement invariance provided evidence for cross-country test score comparability of 5 of the 7 scales and partial scale score invariance of 2 anxiety scales. Possible explanations for this partial invariance include cross-country differences in conceptualizing items and defining what is socially and culturally acceptable anxiety. The convincing evidence for validity of score interpretation makes the Dominic Interactive an indispensable tool for cross-country screening purposes.

Keywords: child self-report, the Dominic Interactive, construct validity, measurement invariance, crosscountry Research

Question Kuijpers, R, C. W. M., Otten, R., Vermulst, A., Rutger C., Engels, M. E. (2014). Reliability and Construct Validity of a Child Self-Report Instrument, The Dominic Interactive. European Journal of Psychological Assessment 2014; Vol. 30(1):40–47.
AnswerABSTRACT

 

Both clinicians and researchers agree on the value of self-report in child mental health assessment. The pictorial format of the computerized Dominic Interactive is an addition to the existing questionnaires, specifically concerning young children. Although prior studies on the Dominic Interactive reported favorable psychometric properties, the reliability was not always satisfactory for every scale, and no studies confirmed the proposed DSM-IV factor structure of the Dominic Interactive. This study examines these two psychometric aspects using a sample of 1,504 Dutch primary-school children aged 6–13 years. α was computed and compared with ω, an alternative index of reliability. CFA was conducted as was the measurement invariance at a configural, scalar, and metric level across both age and sex. The results showed that ω values were above .80, indicating good to high reliability for all scales. The DSM-IV factor structure was

confirmed and proved to be identical across age groups and among both boys and girls in this sample. These findings lay the foundation for the meaningful use of the norms needed in clinical practice. They also contribute to the increasing value of the Dominic Interactive as a self-report instrument in child mental health screening.

Keywords: self-report, child, Dominic Interactive, construct validity, reliability

Question Kuijpers, R., Otten, R., Vermulst, A., A., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Carta M., Goelitz, D., Keyes, K., Koç, C., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Engels, E., Kovess, V., (2014). Cross-country construct validity of the ‘Dominic Interactive’. European Journal of Public Health, 24, Issue suppl 2, 1 October 2014, cku165-046.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background and aims: The international monitoring, evaluation and improvement of children’s mental health has become increasingly important. Large-scale research studies are conducted to establish this, but few of them use child self-report as an additional instrument to parent and teacher report or to other available statistics. The Dominic Interactive is a computerized, DSM-IV-based questionnaire that because of its unique characteristics enables primary school children to report on their own mental health. However, to ensure adequate comparability across countries, it is essential to confirm the factor structure and determine measurement invariance.

Methods: In a sample of 8,135 children, aged 6 to 11 years old, across seven European countries the reliability (Omega) of the Dominic Interactive was determined, the construct validity of the underlying seven-scale factor structure was tested and measurement invariance was examined.

Results: For every country, omega values of all scales appeared to be good to high and the proposed latent structure was verified. An in-depth investigation of several aspects of measurement invariance showed equivalence of five of the seven scales across countries. The scales separation anxiety disorder and generalized anxiety disorder were not invariant, pointing out differences in means of these mental health problems between countries.

Conclusions: This study provided convincing evidence that the Dominic Interactive can be reliably and validly used for cross-country screening purposes, although cautiousness is warranted when comparing two of the anxiety scales.

Question BERGERON, L., BERTHIAUME, C., ST.-GEORGES, M., PICHÉ, G., SMOLLA, N., (2013). Reliability, Validity and Clinical Utility of the Dominic Interactive: a DSM-based Self-report Screen for School-aged Children. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(8):466–475.
AnswerABSTRACT

 

Objectives: As no single informant can be considered the gold standard of child psychopathology, interviewing of children regarding their own symptoms is necessary. Our study focused on the reliability, validity, and clinical use of the Dominic Interactive (DI), a multimedia self-report screen to assess symptoms for the most frequent Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, mental disorders in school-aged children.

Methods: A sample of 585 children aged 6 to 11 years from the community and psychiatric clinics was used to analyze the internal consistency, the test–retest estimate of reliability, and the criterion-related validity of the DI against the referral status. In addition, crossinformant correlation coefficients between this instrument (child report) and the Child Symptom Inventory (parent report) were explored in a subsample of 292 participants.

Results: For the total sample, Cronbach alpha coefficients ranged from 0.63 to 0.91.

Test–retest kappas varied from 0.42 to 0.62 for categories based on cut-off points, except for specific phobias. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.70 to 0.81 for symptom scales. The DI discriminated between referred and nonreferred children in psychiatric clinics for all symptom scales. Significant cross-informant correlation coefficients were higher for the externalizing symptoms (0.35 to 0.48) than the internalizing symptoms (0.14 to 0.27).

Conclusions: Findings of our study reasonably support adequate psychometric properties of the DI. This instrument offers a developmentally sensitive screening method to obtain unique information from young children about their mental health problems in front-line services, psychiatric clinics, and research settings.

 

RÉSUMÉ

 

Fiabilité, validité, et utilisation clinique du Dominique interactif : un instrument fondé sur le DSM, auto-déclaré pour enfants d’âge scolaire

Objectifs : Comme aucun indicateur unique ne peut être considéré comme étant l’étalon

de référence de la psychopathologie pédiatrique, il est nécessaire d’interviewer les enfants à l’égard de leurs propres symptômes. Notre étude portait sur la fiabilité, la validité et l’utilisation clinique du Dominique interactif (DI), un instrument multimédia auto-déclaré servant à évaluer chez les enfants d’âge scolaire, les symptômes des troubles mentaux lesplus fréquents du Manuel diagnostique et statistique des troubles mentaux, 4e édition, texte révisé.

Méthodes : Un échantillon de 585 enfants de 6 à 11 ans de cliniques communautaires et psychiatriques a été utilisé pour analyser la cohérence interne, l’estimation test–retest de la fiabilité, et la validité liée à un critère du DI contre l’état des sujets référés. En outre, les coefficients de corrélation inter-indicateurs entre cet instrument (rapport des enfants) et l’inventaire des symptômes des enfants (rapport des parents) ont été explorés dans un sous-échantillon de 292 participants.

Résultats : Pour le total de l’échantillon, les coefficients alpha de Cronbach se situaient entre 0,63 et 0,91. Les kappas test–retest variaient de 0,42 à 0,62 pour les catégories basées sur les seuils d’inclusion, excepté pour les phobies spécifiques. Les coefficients de corrélation intraclasse allaient de 0,70 à 0,81 pour les échelles de symptômes. Le DI discriminait entre les enfants référés et non référés à des cliniques psychiatriques pour toutes les échelles de symptômes. Les coefficients de corrélation inter-indicateurs significatifs étaient plus élevés pour les symptômes extériorisés (0,35 à 0,48) que pour les symptômes interiorisés (0,14 à 0,27).

Conclusions : Les résultats de notre étude soutiennent raisonnablement les propriétés psychométriques adéquates du DI. Cet instrument offre une méthode de dépistage sensible au stade du développement afin d’obtenir des renseignements uniques de la part des jeunes enfants sur leurs problèmes de santé mentale dans les services de première ligne, les cliniques psychiatriques, et les milieux de recherche.

 

Keywords: Dominic Interactive, children, mental disorders, reliability, validity, clinical use

Question Kuijpers, R, C. W. M., Otten, R., Krol, N. P. C. M., Vermulst, A., Rutger C., Engels, M. E. (2013). The Reliability and Validity of the Dominic Interactive: A Computerized Child Report Instrument for Mental Health Problems. Child and Youth Care Forum, Online 27 July 2012. Pages 1-18.
AnswerABSTRACT

 

Background: Children and youths’ self-report of mental health problems is considered essential but complicated. Objective: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV based self-report questionnaire and explores informant correspondence. Methods: The Dominic Interactive was administered to 214 Dutch children, 6–11 year old, 122 attended special education schools and 92 children attended public schools. Within 2 weeks 155 children were reassessed. Parents of 211 children completed a paper version of the Dominic Interactive. Results: The findings showed moderate to good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, although stability increased with age. Factor structure concerning generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder displayed ambiguous results. Comparing special education with public school children revealed that both parents and children in special education reported significantly more problems on almost all scales. The results on informant correspondence revealed that discrepancies in reports were not consistent across individual pairs; they were due to a few extreme cases. Eliminating these cases increased the agreement in reports. Conclusions: Although more research is needed to determine the value of the Dominic Interactive, the Dominic Interactive has the potential to contribute with its unique features to the existing self-report instruments for screening and assessing child mental health.

Question Fahim, C., Fiori, M., Evans, A. C., Pérusse, D., (2012). The Relationship between Social Defiance, Vindictiveness, Anger, and Brain Morphology in Eight-year-old Boys and Girls. Social Development. 21, 592–609. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00644.x
AnswerABSTRACT

 

The goal of this study is twofold: (1) to assess brain anatomical differences between children meeting diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and healthy controls, and (2) to investigate whether morphological brain characteristics associated with ODD differ in boys and girls. Eight-year-old participants (N = 38) were scanned using magnetic resonance imaging. ODD symptoms were assessed using the Dominic-R interactive. In ODD participants, we observed a significant reduction of gray matter density in the left orbitofrontal cortex—a prefrontal region that plays a pivotal role in emotional self-regulation and impulse control—and, conversely, an increase in the left temporal area—an area that has been associated with aggressive, impulsive, and antisocial personality. Furthermore, ODD boys showed a reduction of both gray matter density in the left orbitofrontal cortex and of white matter density in the left superior frontal area. The structural abnormalities found in the present study, in particular, the correlation between ODD symptoms and reduction of gray matter density in the left orbitofrontal cortex, may present some evidence for the existence of neuropathology associated with ODD symptoms during childhood. Furthermore, our findings indicate morphometric differences between boys and girls with ODD, which may be associated with gender differences in social behavior in children showing ODD symptoms.

Question de la Osa N., Ezpeleta L., Granero R., Olaya B., Doménech J.M.(2011). Diagnostic value of the Dominic Interactive Assessment with children exposed to intimate partner violence. Psicothema, 23(4):648-53.
AnswerABSTRACT

This article reports on the diagnostic validity of the Dominic Interactive Assessment (DIA) in a sample of Spanish children exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The study participants included 55 children aged between 6 and 11 years whose mothers visited an IPV counseling centre. Psychopathology and functional impairment were used as the main criteria for assessing predictive and discriminative accuracy, as well as incremental validity, of DIA. The results indicate that DIA permits obtaining useful information from children. This information improves the prediction and validity of the process of clinical assessment of children exposed to IPV. Children’s self-reports could prove effective in identifying cases in this high-risk population when developmentally adequate instruments and functional criteria are used.

Question Fahim, C., He, Y., Yoon, U., Chen, J., Evans, A., Pérusse, D., (2011). Neuroanatomy of childhood disruptive behavior disorders. Aggressive Behavior. 37, 4, 326–337. doi:10.1002/ab.20396
AnswerABSTRACT

 

Our aims were to (1) examine possible neuroanatomical abnormalities associated with the Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) as a group and (2) assess neuroanatomical anomalies specific to each DBD (i.e., conduct disorder [CD] and oppositional defiant disorder). Cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry were analyzed in 47 8-year-old boys (22 DBDs with and without CD and/or ODD and 25 healthy controls) from Magnetic Resonance Imaging brain scans. DBD symptoms were assessed using the Dominic-R. In DBD subjects relative to controls, we found (1) a decreased overall mean cortical thickness; (2) thinning of the cingulate, prefrontal and insular cortices; and (3) decreased gray matter density (GMd) in the same brain regions. We also found that scores on the Dominic-R were negatively correlated with GMd in the prefrontal and precuneus/superior temporal regions. There was a subdiagnostic main effect for CD, related to thinning of the middle/medial frontal, and for ODD in the left rectal/orbitofrontal. Findings suggest that thinning and decreased GMd of the insula disorganizes prefrontal circuits, diminishing the inhibitory influence of the prefrontal cortex on anger, aggression, cruelty, and impulsivity, and increasing a person’s likelihood of aggressive behavior. These findings have implications for pathophysiologic models of the DBDs, their diagnostic classification system, and for designing more effective intervention programs

Question BERGERON, L., SMOLLA, N., VALLA, J.P., ST.-GEORGES, M., BERTHIAUME, C., PICHE, G., BARBE, C. (2010). Psychometric properties of a pictorial instrument for assessing psychopathology in youths aged 12 to 15 years: The Dominic Interactive for Adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55, (4): 211-221.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objectives: Over the last 15 years, adequate psychometric properties of the different versions of the Dominic led to the development of the Dominic Interactive for Adolescents (DIA). The DIA is a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), Fourth Edition, Text Revision–based self-administered computerized pictorial instrument for assessing the most frequent mental disorders in adolescents aged 12 to 15 years. Our study aims to verify the internal consistency, the test–retest estimate of reliability, and the criterion-related validity of this instrument.

Conclusion: Because no informant can be considered the criterion standard of psychopathology, the interview with adolescents regarding their own symptoms is necessary. Findings of this study reasonably support adequate psychometric properties of the DIA in youths aged 12 to15 years. Clinical Implications: The Dominic Interactive for Adolescents (DIA) is a new DSM-based self-report measure with adequate psychometric properties in young adolescents. The DIA quickly (about 15 minutes) provides DSM-IV-TR approximates allowing clinicians to orient more in-depth investigation. The DIA’s brief administration-time allows it to be used in conjunction with other measures during the same session.

Limitations: The DIA is not sufficient to determine definite diagnoses, clinical judgment is always necessary in decision-making about intervention. The lower cut-off may overestimate possible mental health problems in adolescents from the community. The unrepresentative sample limits the generalization of results to any target population of adolescents.

Key words: Dominic Interactive for Adolescents, self-report, DSM-IV-TR mental disorders, reliability, validity

RÉSUMÉ

Propriétés psychométriques d’un instrument pictographique d’évaluation de la psychopathologie chez les jeunes de 12 à 15 ans: Le Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents.

Objectifs : Les propriétés psychométriques satisfaisantes des versions antérieures du Dominique ont mené au développement du Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents (DIA). Le DIA est une mesure pictographique, informatisée et auto-administrée qui évalue les troubles mentaux les plus fréquents chez les adolescents de 12 à 15 ans, selon la symptomatologie du DSM-IV-TR. Cette étude a pour but de vérifier la cohérence interne, la fidélité par test-retest et la validité de critère de cet instrument.

Méthode : L’échantillon total incluait 607 adolescents de la région de Montréal (population en général : 465; population clinique : 142). Des coefficients alpha de Cronbach évaluaient la cohérence interne alors que des kappas et des coefficients de corrélation intraclasse (CCIs) estimaient la fidélité par test-retest. Deux critères ont été retenus comme indices de validité du DIA : le jugement clinique sur la présence ou l’absence des symptômes (attribution de cotes indépendantes par trois juges) et les références d’adolescents en cliniques externes de pédopsychiatrie.

Résultat : Pour la majorité des échelles des symptômes du DIA, les coefficients alpha de Cronbach variaient de ,69 à ,89, les kappas étaient ≥ ,50 et les CCIs se situaient entre ,78 et ,87. La validité de critère a été démontrée pour les symptômes, les échelles de symptômes et les catégories définies par les seuils du DIA.

Conclusion : Puisqu’aucun informateur ne représente le critère absolu pour définir la psychopathologie il est nécessaire d’interroger les adolescents sur leurs symptômes. Cette étude suggère que le DIA possède des propriétés psychométriques satisfaisantes chez les adolescents de 12 à 15 ans.

Question SHOJAEI, T., WAZANA, A., PITROU, I., GILBERT, F., BERGERON, L., VALLA, J.P., KOVESS-MASFETY, V. (2009). Psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive in a large French sample. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 54 (11), 767-776.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objectives. To examine the psychometric properties of the Dominic Interactive in young children in a different cultural environment than Quebec.
Methods. 100 schools and 25 children (6-11 years old) per school were randomly selected in a large French region. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires to children (Dominic Interactive), parents (socio-demographic characteristics, mental health services use) and teachers (school achievement). To assess DI psychometric properties were examined: a) the distribution of each DI diagnosis; b) comorbidity between diagnoses; c) alpha coefficients measuring internal consistency; d) correlates of psychopathologies with socio-demographic status and healthcare services use. Estimates of DI properties were compared to those from a sample of community children in Québec.
Results. Complete data were available for 1,274 children (54.4%). Performances estimated for each DI diagnosis of the French version were good with Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from 0.62 to 0.89. Psychometric properties and comorbidity were consistent with the version from Quebec.
Conclusions. Satisfactory psychometric properties added to other known advantages (children enjoy the activity, parents approve it, cost-effectiveness) and easy cultural adaptability suggest to consider the use of the Dominic Interactive in diverse cultures for epidemiological studies.

Question SHILLINGSBURG, M.A., SHAPIRO, S, K, RAGSDALE, K, SIKORSKI, J. (2008) An Exploratory Study of the Influences on Response Stability of the Interactive Dominic/Terry Questionnaire. Graduate Student Journal of Psychology, 10: 29-37
AnswerABSTRACT

The Dominic Interactive is a pictorial structured child interview screener with features to address developmental issues that are often problematic for young informants. It includes items depicting nonsymptomatic activities as well as activities demonstrating DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) symptoms of several childhood disorders. We examined the reliability of the Interactive Dominic/Terry, as well as potential factors influencing response stability, with a sample of 59 inpatient adolescents. Response stability refers to the tendency for the same response to be given over time. Analyses yielded good to excellent reliability for the majority of the scales. Response stability was similar regardless of age, gender, or race. Results also suggested an inverse relationship between Verbal IQ and rate of response change. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that this instrument is suitable for children and adolescents of different racial backgrounds, although the impact of intelligence requires further investigation.

Question LINARES SCOTT, T, J., SHORT, E.J., SINGER, L.T., RUSS, S.W., MINNES. S. (2006). Psychometric properties of the Dominic interactive Assessment, A Computerized Self-report for Children. Assessment, 13, (1), 16-26.
AnswerABSTRACT

The reliability and validity of the Dominic Interactive (DI) assessment were evaluated. The DI is a computerized self-report measure for children, which assesses symptom presence for seven DSM-IV diagnoses. The participants were 322 children (169 cocaine exposed, 153 noncocaine exposed) who were recruited at birth for a prospective longitudinal study. At 6 years of age, measures of self-report, parent report, and observational data were collected. Moderate to excellent internal consistencies on the DI were found for the total sample as well as for subsamples based on cocaine status and gender. Concurrent validity correlations between DI scales and the Child Behavior Checklist, Affect in Play Scale, a modified Conners’ Teachers Rating Scale, and the Parenting Stress Index were examined. Significant relationships among scales were more apt to be among comparisons that assessed externalizing behaviours. Overall, low correlations were obtained, which are comparable to other studies that evaluate agreement between child and parent report of behaviour.
Keywords : Dominic Interactive: child self-report; cocaine exposure; CBCL

Question CHRISMAN, A., EGGER, H., COMPTON, S.N., CURRY, J., GOLDSTON, D.B. (2006) Assessment of Childhood Depression. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 11: 111-116
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: Depression as a disorder in childhood began to be increasingly recognised in the 1970s. Epidemiologic community and clinic-based studies have characterised the prevalence, clinical course, and complications of this illness throughout childhood and adolescence into adulthood. This paper reviews two instruments for assessing depression in prepubertal children – the Dominic Interactive and The Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. Both instruments are useful in screening for psychiatric disorders and reliably identifying the presence of depressive symptoms in young children.

Question SMOLLA, N., VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., BERTHIAUME, C., ST-GEORGES, M. (2004). Development and reliability of a pictorial mental disorders screen for young adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49: 828-837
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: To report psychometric data from preliminary studies on a pictorial screener for the most frequent Axis I youth mental disorders: the “Adolescent Dominic” (AD). Methods: Based on DSM-III-R diagnostic criteria, 113 picture items were created and assessed for comprehension (sample 1, n=114; sample 2, n=40) and reliability (sample 3, n=128) with community adolescents aged 12-16. The kappa statistic was used to estimate test-retest reliability of symptoms, criteria and diagnoses, and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) for symptom and criterion scores. Internal consistency of symptom scores was assessed with the alpha coefficient. Results: 54.4% of kappas for symptoms were higher than 0.60 while only 2% were poor; ICCs for symptom scores yielded higher values (0.81-0.89) than for criterion scores (0.51-0.86). Internal consistency of symptom scores ranged from .52 to .83. Kappas for diagnoses ranged between 0.52 and 0.76. Conclusions: Symptom reliability compared favourably with data from other assessment interviews of youth mental disorders. Following these positive results, a computerized DSM-IV version of the AD has put focus on the assessment of symptoms and is currently under testing for reliability and criterion validity. Clinical implications: The Adolescent Dominic is a DSM-based standardized screener with demonstrated reliability with community adolescents as young as 12 years of age. The instrument can serve as a take-off point for clinical interviewing, and a complement to usual clinical practice. It could encourage the expression of the adolescent’s own concerns and thereby help clinicians identify priorities for intervention. Limitations: Low prevalence of mental disorders in community samples is the main limitation of studies of this type. Not all DSM mental disorders are assessed by the AD. Cut-off scores with clinical samples have yet to be established, as well as standardisation with a large sample to provide normative data. Results may not be generalized to adolescents physically or cognitively impaired, or with learning disabilities. Psychometric properties are population specific and should be interpreted considering the characteristics of the population from which the samples were drawn.
Keywords: adolescents, pictorial assessment, mental disorders, reliability, community samples

Question DUGRÉ, S., TRUDEL, M., (2003). Approche transversale de profils d'adaptation en santé mentale chez des filles et des garçons de 6-9 ans : une analyse typologique. Canadian Journal of Education, 28, 1-29.
AnswerABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to build on the emerging effort to produce a typology of child behavioral adjustment. The children (302 girls, 354 boys) aged six to nine years responded to a mental health self-report: The Dominic-R (Valla et al., 1994, 1997). The proposed typology is based upon a multidimensional conceptualization and employs the Ward method of cluster analysis to derive specific subtypes that represent both normal and problematic profiles. The database used in developing this typology includes males and females. Five to six types of mental health profiles were identified: Good adjustment, average adjustment, internalized, externalized, and mixed behavior problems. Clusters indicated differences on the basis of age and gender. The treatment implications of these findings are being discussed.

 

RÉSUMÉ

Dans le but de développer une compréhension intégrée des difficultés d’adaptation de l’enfant dans une population générale, une typologie des profils d’adaptation selon une perspective multidimensionnelle a été identifiée auprès de 673 élèves de classes régulières qui ont procédé à leur autoévaluation au moyen du Dominique-R (Valla et al., 1994,1997). La démarche de classification utilise des analyses en regroupements hiérarchiques (cluster analysis) pour illustrer différents sous-groupes de sujets sur la base des similitudes de profil. Une série d’analyses a permis de sélectionner de 5 à 6 profils en fonction de l’âge et de l’appartenance sexuelle: Bonne adaptation et Adaptation moyenne, Symptômes intériorisés, Symptômes extériorisés et Symptômes mixtes. Les profils retrouvés sont généralement nuancés quand l’enfant s’évalue et les résultats portant sur une approche différentielle selon le sexe et l’âge illustrent des profils d’adaptation propres à chacun des sous-groupes. L’approche utilisée, comparée à l’approche traditionnelle apporte des nuances qui permettent de mieux comprendre l’agencement des différents symptômes qui ponctuent le développement de l’enfant. Les implications théoriques et pratiques de l’approche méthodologique sont discutées.

Question CHAN CHEE, C., KOVESS, V., VALLA, J.P., ALLES-JARDEL, M., GRAS-VINCENDON, A., MARTIN, C., PIQUET, C., VANTALON, V. (2003). Validation d'un questionnaire interactif sur la santé mentale des enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Annales Médico Psychologiques, 161 :439-445. (French validation of a mental Health Interactive Questionnaire for 6 to 11 years-old children) In French.
AnswerABSTRACT

The «Dominic Interactive» is a computerized pictorial questionnaire used for the assessment of 6 to 11 year-old children’s mental health. The pictures illustrate the abstract emotional and behavioural content of most frequent mental health problems based on DSM-IV symptomatology. The CD-ROM-based “Dominic Interactive” was given to 253 community children from voluntary Aix-en-Provence schools and to 150 children from four child psychiatric clinics. In the child psychiatric clinics referred children also received clinical diagnoses. Prevalence estimates and symptom scores yielded by the “Dominic Interactive” in referred children were significantly higher than those in general population. Since the ” Dominic Interactive ” is like a playful practical game of very easy use, its acceptability by both children and professionals was excellent.
Key words: assessment, child, externalised disorders, interactive questionnaire, internalised disorders.

RÉSUMÉ

Le questionnaire «Dominique Interactif» présenté sous forme de bande dessinée interactive sur CD-Rom est un instrument de détection de troubles intériorisés et extériorisés chez les enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Les images illustrent des situations concrètes qui font référence à des concepts abstraits de troubles mentaux les plus fréquents basés sur la classification du DSM-IV. Sa validation en France a été conduite chez 253 enfants des écoles volontaires d’Aix en Provence et 150 enfants consultant dans quatre services de pédopsychiatrie. Dans cette population clinique, le diagnostic clinique a aussi été porté après entretien avec l’enfant. Le ” Dominique Interactif ” permet d’effectuer la classification des enfants en trois catégories selon l’importance des scores obtenus. La prévalence des troubles était significativement plus élevée dans la population clinique que dans la population générale. La simplicité d’utilisation, la rapidité de passation et le côté ludique du Dominique Interactif en font un instrument bien accepté par les enfants et les professionnels.
Mots-clés : enfant, questionnaire interactif, troubles intériorisés, troubles extériorisés, validation.

Question VALLA, JP, KOVESS, V, CHAN CHEE, C, BERTHIAUME, C, VANTALON, V, PIQUET, C, GRAS-VINCENDON, A, MARTIN, C, ALLES-JARDEL, M (2002). A French Study of the Dominic Interactive. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37: 441-448.
AnswerABSTRACT

Introduction : The Dominic Interactive was developed in North America to assess child’s perception of her/his own symptoms, which is critical to balance parents and school professionals perception. It is a computerized, DSM-IV-based pictorial questionnaire akin to a video game, for children aged 6 to 11. A strengths and competencies scale displays positive situations. Most children complete the Dominic Interactive 90 situations within 10 to 15 minutes.

Objective: Because of the cultural differences between North American and French children, a study of the appropriateness of the instrument to assess French children was required.

Methods: The CD-ROM-based Dominic Interactive was completed by 253 community children, and to 150 children from outpatient clinics in four French cities. The latter also received clinical diagnoses. Prevalence estimates yielded by the Dominic Interactive in the general population and referred children, relationships between prevalence estimates based on the Dominic Interactive and clinical judgments, and differences between Dominic Interactive scores in sub-samples of children with and without a clinical diagnosis were studied.

Results : Significant differences between clinically referred and non-referred children were found for every diagnosis, and between Dominic Interactive scores of referred children with and without a clinical diagnosis with the exception of Oppositional Disorder. Parental acceptability of the instrument was never a problem, children like it, and clinicians comments were positive.

Discussion : Reference and clinical judgment both indicate that the Dominic Interactive is appropriate to assess child mental health in France. Clinical judgment discrepancies between sites and small numbers are the limitations of this study.

Conclusion : The instrument performed well in the French context. The potential advantages of using the Dominic Interactive (children enjoy the activity, parents approve of it, it is relatively cost-effective, etc.) suggests its applicability in other settings.

Question DUGRÉ, S., TRUDEL, M., VALLA, J.P. (2001). Considérations individuelles et culturelles en santé mentale des enfants : le Dominique à l'épreuve. Revue canadienne de psycho-éducation, 30, 119-138.
AnswerABSTRACT

The study presents results obtained from 334 French and Quebec children aged six to nine years who responded to a self-report mental health instrument, the Dominic-R (Valla, 1997). Group assessments were used instead of the usual individual assessment and very similar psychometric results were obtained. Factor analyses revealed differences between adult-assessment and self-report applications of the instrument. Contrary to adult-assessment, self-reports produced an association between depression and externalizing symptoms. Boys reported more externalizing symptoms while girls presented more internalizing symptoms, however, there were no sex differences in terms of depression. Regardless of age, gender or cultural background, the most often reported symptoms were anxiety and separation anxiety. Overall, there was an increase with age in children’s reported symptoms, but only externalizing symptoms increased significantly. Sex differences were marked for the French sample but not for the Quebec sample. The study also explores co-morbidity issues, particularly among boys.

 

RÉSUMÉ

L’étude présente les résultats obtenus auprès de 334 enfants français et québécois de 6-9 ans suite à l’auto-évaluation de leur santé mentale au moyen du Dominique-R (Valla, 1997). La passation collective a été privilégiée et les qualités métrologiques se comparent avantageusement à celles obtenues en passation individuelle. L’analyse factorielle permet de constater que, contrairement à ce qui se ressort lorsque les adultes mesurent la santé mentale de l’enfant, quand les enfants s’évaluent la dépression corrèle davantage avec les troubles extériorisés. Les garçons présentent davantage de problèmes extériorisés et les filles de problèmes intériorisés cependant, la dépression ne les distingue pas. Quelles que soient les variables considérées (âge, genre ou contexte culturel), les symptômes les plus fréquents portent sur l’anxiété et l’angoisse de séparation. On retrouve d’importantes différences entre les garçons et les filles en France ce qui n’est pas le cas au Québec. Avec l’âge, les enfants déclarent plus de symptômes mais seuls les troubles extériorisés se révèlent significatifs. Une attention particulière est consacrée à l’analyse de la comorbidité qui s’avère très présente chez les garçons.
Mots-clés: développement, enfant, santé mentale, auto-évaluation, comorbidité

Question VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, SMOLLA, N (2000). The Dominic-R: A pictorial interview for 6-to 11-year-old children, Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 85-93.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: To review the Dominic-R and the Terry questionnaires, respectively for white and African-American children, both DSM-lll-R-based, and more recent DSM-IV-based computerized versions.

Method: Five papers describing the development, content, validation studies, and establishment of the diagnostic cutpoints of these instruments are reviewed. The instruments are pictorial, fully structured, and designed to assess mental disorders in children 6 to 11 years of age. Symptom descriptions complement the visual stimulus, providing better information-processing than visual or auditory stimuli alone. Cognitive immaturity of young children bars frequency, duration, and age-of-onset measurements, restricting correspondence with DSM criteria. DSM-IV(computerized versions) and DSM-III-R (paper versions) disorders being assessed include specific (simple) phobias, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety (overanxious), depression/dysthymia, attention-deficit hyperactivity, oppositional defiant, and conduct disorder.

Results: Test-retest reliability of symptoms and symptom scores and criterion validity against clinical judgment support the visual-auditory combination of stimuli to assess child mental health.

Conclusion: Intended for clinical, epidemiological, and screening purposes, these instruments are short and simple. Although it only approximates DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria, the pictorial format permits young children to be reliable informants about their mental health.

Question MURPHY, DA, CANTWELL, C, JORDAN, DD, LEE, MB, COOLEY-QUILLE, MR, LAHEY, BB (2000). Test-retest reliability of Dominic anxiety and depression items among young children, Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 22, 257-270.
AnswerABSTRACT

Assessing anxiety and depressive symptoms through direct interviewing of young children has been found to be particularly difficult utilizing standard interview methods. Test-retest reliability of selected anxiety and depression items from the revised Dominic (Valla, Bergeron, Bidaut-Russell, St-Georges, & Gaudet, 1997), a cartoon-based questionnaire based on DSM diagnostic criteria, was investigated among two geographically diverse samples (Los Angeles and St. Louis; N = 37). Overall, kappas were higher for the anxiety items than for the depression items. In both cities the sample included clinic and non-clinic cases of African-American, Hispanic/Latino, and Caucasian children age 6-8; kappas for the anxiety and depression items were higher among the clinic cases than for the community cases. Given the need for psychometrically sound measures for culturally diverse samples of children, this initial report suggests that the use of selected Dominic items holds promise as a cartoon-based assessment of young children.

Question VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., ST-GEORGES, M., BERTHIAUME, C. (2000) Le Dominique Interactif : présentation, cadre conceptuel, propriétés psychométriques, limites, et utilisation. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-éducation, 29 : 327-347.
AnswerABSTRACT

The Dominic Interactive is a computerized, interactive cartoon with a running time of 10 to 15 minutes, specially designed to assess the mental health in children 6 to 11 years of age. Ninety situations are displayed. Children themselves respond by using the mouse. Based on DSM-IV, the Dominic Interactive screens for the 7 most frequent mental health problems in primary school children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity, oppositional, conduct, depressive, separation anxiety, generalized anxiety disorders and specific phobias. A strength and competencies scale displays positive situations. Results are provided immediately. The first paper version of the Dominique questionnaire was developed in 1981. Because of the instrument’s limitations, DSM-IV limitations, and cognitive limitations and developmental characteristics of children, a three categories rating of psychopathology has been developed : mental health problems are either not likely, possible, or likely. The pictorial approach allows children to be reliable informants about their own mental health from age 6. The Dominic Interactive is useful for clinical assessment, school screening and epidemiological and evaluation research. Because it allows children to speak for themselves, the Dominic Interactive favors identification of internalizing disorders and brings about a balanced view of children mental health problems.

 

RÉSUMÉ

Le Dominique Interactif est une bande dessinée interactive multimédia basée sur le DSM-IV, conçue pour évaluer la santé mentale des enfants de 6 à 11 ans. Les enfants répondent eux-mêmes avec la souris. La plupart le complètent en 10 à 15 minutes. Simple et attrayant pour l’enfant, le Dominique Interactif montre 90 situations. Une échelle de Forces et Compétences illustre des situations positives. L’instrument évalue les 7 problèmes de santé mentale les plus fréquents chez les enfants (anxiété généralisée, angoisse de séparation, phobies spécifiques, dépression, hyperactivité/trouble de l’attention, opposition, problèmes de conduite). L’ordinateur fournit instantanément les résultats. La première version papier du Dominique a été développée en 1981. À cause des limites de l’instrument, des critiques suscitées par le DSM-IV, et de l’immaturité et des caractéristiques développementales des enfants, le Dominique Interactif propose trois catégories de psychopathologie : probablement absente, peut-être présente, et probablement présente. La méthode graphique permet aux enfants d’être des informateurs fiables sur leur propre santé mentale dès l’âge de 6 ans. Le Dominique Interactif est utile en clinique, en milieu scolaire, et pour la recherche épidémiologique et évaluative. En donnant la parole aux enfants, il favorise l’identification des problèmes intériorisés et apporte une vision nuancée des enfants.

Question BIDAUT-RUSSELL, M, VALLA, JP, THOMAS, JM, BERGERON, L, LAWSON, E (1998). Reliability of the Terry: A mental health cartoon-like screener for African-American children, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 28, 249-263.
AnswerABSTRACT

Test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Terry, a cartoon-based child mental health screener developed for African-American children, were measured in 36 boys (age 5 to 13) in a test-retest design. Reliability of the diagnosis (0.70 less than or equal to k less than or equal to 0.75) was good for ADHD, ODD, CD, and OAD, and excellent for MDD and SAD. Because of low base-rate, no kappa value was calculated for SPh. Both test-retest agreement, and reliability of the symptom scale (0.75 less than or equal to ICC less than or equal to 0.80) were very good for all 7 diagnoses. Internal consistency according to symptom scale (0.78 less than or equal to Cronbach a less than or equal to 0.90), was moderate for OAD, good for SPh, MDD, SAD, CD, and ODD, and excellent for ADHD. The Terry is a culturally-sensitive questionnaire with good reliability.

Question VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, BIDAUT-RUSSELL, M ST-GEORGES, M, GAUDET, N (1997). Reliability of the Dominic-R: A young child mental health questionnaire combining visual and auditory stimuli, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 38, 717-724.
AnswerABSTRACT

Reliability of the Dominic-R, a questionnaire combining visual and auditory stimuli, was tested in 340 community children aged 6 to 11 years. Test-retest reliability of symptoms of, and of symptom scores of, DSM-III-R disorders including simple phobias, separation anxiety disorder, overanxious disorder, depression/dysthymia, attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder was assessed. Most symptoms yielded kappa values greater than .40, and ICCs ranged from .74 to .81. In conclusion, reliability of the Dominic-R compares favorably with that of other child assessment questionnaires.

Question VALLA, JP, BERGERON, L, BERUBE, H, GAUDET, N, ST-GEORGES, M (1994). A structured pictorial questionnaire to assess DSM-III-R-based diagnoses in children (6-11 years) - Development, validity, and reliability, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 22, 403-423.
AnswerABSTRACT

This paper presents a structured pictorial instrument, the Dominic questionnaire, to assess mental disorders in 6 to 11 year-old children. Ninety-nine drawings represent situations corresponding to DSM-III-R based ADHD, CD, ODD, MDD, SAD, OAD, and SPh. However, cognitive limitation of 6 to 11 year-old children do not allow for time-related measurement. The instrument takes 15-20 min to administer. Reliability and validity of the Dominic questionnaire were studied in Parent DISC-2 positive and negative outpatient and general population samples and against clinical judgment. The pictorial approach provides acceptable test-retest reliability and the instrument makes standardized assessment possible for children as young as 6 years of age.

Études réalisées avec le Dominic (5 dernières années)

2018

Question Bajeux, E., Klemanski, D.H., Husky, M., Leray, E., Chan Chee, C., Shojaei, T., Fermanian, C., Kovess-Masfety, V. (2018). Factors Associated with Parent–Child Discrepancies in Reports of Mental Health Disorders in Young Children, Child Psychiatry & Human Development, pp 1003–1010, 49, 6.
AnswerABSTRACT

The study compares parent and child reports of child mental health to determine the relationship between parent–child disagreement and parental psychological and attitudinal factors, and to determine how parent–child disagreement is associated with the use of specialized services. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 1268 children aged 6–11 years using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Psychological distress and negative parental attitudes were associated with greater reporting of mental health problems, leading to greater parent-child agreement on symptom presence, and to parental over-reporting of symptoms. Parent/child agreement was associated with 43.83% of contact with a mental health provider for externalizing and 33.73% for internalizing problems. The contribution of key parental psychological and attitudinal factors in parent–child disagreement on child mental health status may prove helpful in improving the identification of children in need of specialized services.

KEYWORDS

Child mental health, Parent–child report discrepancy, Informant discrepancy, Dominic interactive, Strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ).

Question Smith, C., Cossette, L., Melançon, F., Beauvais-Dubois, C., Smolla, N., Gagnon-Oosterwaal, N., Chicoine, J-F., Belhumeur, C., Malcuit, G., Pomerleau, A., Seguin, R., Begin. J. (2018). Behavior problems in adolescence among international adoptees, pre-adoption adversity, and parenting stress, Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, pp 53-61, 57.
AnswerABSTRACT

The evolution of behavior problems from school age to adolescence and their relationships with early risk factors and parenting stress were examined among 71 international adoptees. Children’s health status and development were assessed soon after arrival in their family to provide indices of early adversity. At ages 7 and 15, self-report measures (DI and DIA) were used to evaluate behavior problems while mothers completed the CBCL. Mothers also completed the Parenting Stress Index and Stress Index for Parents of Adolescents. A lower percentage of children reported internalizing problems during adolescence than at school age while mothers reported a decrease in externalizing problems over age. A few correlations were found between internalizing and externalizing symptoms and early risk factors. However, these links were sequentially mediated by parenting stress at school age and in adolescence. The potential impact of parenting stress on international adoptees’ psychological adjustment is discussed.

KEYWORD

International adoption, Internalizing and externalizing symptoms, Self-report, Risk factors, Parenting stress, Longitudinal study.

Question Merchant, W., Smith, G., Estrada, S., Hayslip, B. (2018). Psychological difficulties among custodial grandchildren: whose view really matters? Innov Aging, 2(Suppl 1): 977–978. Published online 2018 Nov 16. doi: 10.1093/geroni/igy031.3619.
AnswerABSTRACT

Despite increasing evidence of psychological difficulties among custodial grandchildren (GC), data are limited to grandmothers (GM) as informants without corresponding information being obtained through grandchildren’s self-reports. We address this gap by examining clinical levels of externalizing and internalizing difficulties of 209 GC (ages 4–12; M= 7.8) as measured through both their self-report on the Dominic Interactive (DI) and by their GM (Age, M = 54.1) as informants on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Cross-tabulations showed a higher percentage of GC at clinical levels for internalizing on the SDQ (43.1%) versus the DI (28.2%), and for externalizing on the SDQ (48.3%) versus the DI only (15.8%). Analyses by gender showed that boys were more likely than girls to show clinical externalizing levels on both the SDQ and DI, whereas girls were more likely to show clinical internalizing on the DI only. Analyses of younger (4 – 7) versus older (8 – 12) GC revealed that younger GC were more likely to show clinical levels of internalizing (p < .01) on the self-reported DI only, with no age differences found for externalizing on the SDQ or DI. Logistic regression analyses revealed the only significant predictor of mental health service use by GC to be GM reported externalizing on the SDQ (p < .001), while SDQ internalizing, DI externalizing, DI internalizing, GC age, and GC gender contributing non-significantly to the explained variance (R2 = .15). These findings suggest that important differences exist between informants of GC mental health status.

Question Salem, H., Vivas, D., Cao, F., Kazimi, I.F., Teixeira, A.L., Zeni, C.P. (2018). ADHD is associated with migraine: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, pp 267–277, 27, 3.
AnswerABSTRACT

An association between primary headaches and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has long been suggested. Moreover, headache is regarded as a common side effect of stimulants, the most effective treatment for ADHD. So far, no systematic review has evaluated the potential association between ADHD and headache. We performed a systematic review of the literature and a meta-analysis of all reported studies on ADHD and primary headaches. Our analysis showed a positive association between ADHD and migraine (OR 1.322, 95% CI 1.018–1717, p value 0.036), but not with tension-type headache. There is a significant association between migraine and ADHD. The mechanisms underlying this association remain to be elucidated, warranting further studies.

KEYWORDS

ADHD, Headache, Migraine, Tension-type headache, Meta-analysis, Stimulants.

Question Ismaylova, E., Lévesque, M.L., Pomares, F.B., Pomares1, Szyf, M., Nemoda, Z., Fahim, C., Vitaro, F., Brendgen, M., Dionne, G., Boivin, M., Tremblay,R.E., Booij, L. (2018). Serotonin transporter promotermethylation in peripheral cells and neural responses to negative stimuli: A study of adolescent monozygotic twins. Translational Psychiatry, 8:147.
AnswerABSTRACT

Several studies have examined associations between peripheral DNA methylation patterns of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) promoter and symptoms of depression and anxiety. TheSLC6A4promoter methylation has also been associated with frontal-limbic brain responses to negative stimuli. However, it is unclear how much of this association is confounded by DNA sequence variations. We utilized a monozygotic-twin within-pair discordance design, to test whether DNA methylation at specific CpG sites in theSLC6A4promoter of peripheral cells is associated with greater frontal-limbic brain responses to negative stimuli (sadness and fear), independently of DNA sequence effects. In total48 pairs of healthy 15-year-old monozygotic twins from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study, followed regularly since birth, underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while conducting an emotion-processing task. TheSLC6A4promoter methylation level was assessed in saliva samples using pyrosequencing. Relative to the co-twins with lowerSLC6A4promoter methylation levels, twins with higher peripheralSLC6A4methylation levels showed greater orbitofrontal cortical (OFC) activity and left amygdala-anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left amygdala-right OFC connectivity in response to sadness as well as greater ACC-left amygdala and ACC-left insula connectivity in response to fearful stimuli. By utilising a monozygotic-twin design, we provided evidence that associations between peripheralSLC6A4promoter methylation and frontal-limbic brain responses to negative stimuli are, in part, independent of DNA sequence variations. Although causality cannot be determined here,SLC6A4 promoter methylation may be one of the mechanisms underlying how environmental factors influence the serotonin system, potentially affecting emotional processing through frontal-limbic areas.

Question Delaplace, S.,Riviere, S.G., Saint Come, M.B., Lahaye, H., Popov, I., Rey, N., Visticot, A., Guile, J.M. (2018). Sleep and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder: A pilot actigraphy study. Archives de Pédiatrie, 25, 5, pp 303-308.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the clinical characteristics and motor activity profile during sleep periods of children and adolescents presenting with disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD).

Method: Twenty-one youths (mean age ± standard deviation, 11.7 ± 3 years) wore a wrist actigraph for 9 consecutive days (including both school days and non-school days), to measure sleep parameters: sleep latency, sleep efficiency and the number and duration of periods of wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO). We divided the night-time actigraphy recording sessions into three sections and compared the first and last thirds of the night.

Results: All the study participants had a psychiatric comorbidity (primarily attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depressive disorder or anxiety disorder). On non-school days, bedrest onset and activity onset were shifted later by about 1 h. There was no significant difference between school days and non-school days with regard to the total sleep time. Sleep efficiency was significantly greater on non-school days. Sleep was fragmented on both school days and non-school days. The mean number of episodes of WASO was 24.9 for school days and 30.9 for non-school days. Relative to the first third of the night, we observed a significantly greater number of episodes of WASO during the last third of the night, a period associated with a larger proportion of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep.

Discussion: Sleep appeared to be fragmented in the study population of youths with DMDD. The greater frequency of WASO in the last third of the night points to a possible impairment of the motor inhibition normally associated with REM sleep.

KEYWORDS

Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, Actigraphy, Sleep, Child.

Question Gregory C. Smith,G.C., Hayslip Jr, B., Hancock, G.R., Merchant, W., Montoro-Rodriguez, J., Strieder, F. (2018). The Family Stress Model as it Applies to Custodial Grandfamilies: A Cross Validation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 27, 2, pp 505–521.
AnswerABSTRACT

There is scant research on how the parenting practices of custodial grandmothers affect the psychological adjustment of grandchildren in their care. Yet, the findings from a handful of prior studies suggest the relevance of the Family Stress Model (FSM) to these caregivers. The present study further tested the FSM with baseline data from 343 custodial grandmothers (Mage = 58.5 years) enrolled in a clinical trial of the efficacy of interventions for improving the well-being of their families. Not only was this “help-seeking” sample atypical of prior FSM studies, but also unique to the present study was our addition of multiple parenting practices, self-reported and clinical ratings of grandmothers’ distress, and reports of grandchildren’s internalizing and externalizing difficulties from grandchildren and grandmothers. Mplus 7.31 was used to test a model where the effect of grandmother distress on grandchildren’s internalizing and externalizing difficulties was hypothesized to be indirect through five distinct parenting practices. The findings regarding both the measurement and structural models fit the observed data well, and invariance was largely found across grandchildren’s gender and age (4–7 vs. 8–12). Although grandchildren’s self-reported internalizing and externalizing difficulties were unrelated to grandmothers’ distress and parenting practices, the grandmothers’ reports of these outcomes were generally related to their own distress and parenting practices as hypothesized. However, considerable variation was found across the five parenting practices in terms of their relationships to the other FSM constructs. We conclude that data from multiple informants and measures of assorted parenting practices are essential to future research and practice.

KEYWORDS

Custodial grandmothers, Custodial grandchildren, Parenting practices, Family stress model, Psychological adjustment.

Question Marinova, A., (2018). On the Issue of Problem behavior of Students (in Support of the Law of Pre-School and School Education) Относно въпроса с проблемите в поведението на учениците (В подкрепа на Закона за предучилищното и училищното образование). Педагогика,90, 8, pp 1110-1121. (In Bulgarian)
AnswerABSTRACT

Schools are trying to cope with and manage the behavioral problems of schoolchildren by improving discipline in class. This accomplished analysis draws the attention on approaches in practice in our country which are reactive and whose punishing character do not stop the acts and even nurtures their manifestation. Educational reform opens a place for school support and proactive ways of dealing with problem behavior and for more adequate actions by the school. Supporting the emotional well-being of students, creating a positive psychological climate of concern, caring and cooperative relations will contribute to a holistic orientation of the school with the inclusion of more and different responsible participants. Against this background, the role of school psychologists for finding more effective answers of the school side is more recognizable.

KEYWORDS

Behavioral problems; punishment; support to students; school psychologists.

Question Baril, Marie-Pier (2018). Expérimentation du programme In vivo auprès de jeunes âgés entre 9 et 12 ans présentant une vulnérabilité à l'anxiété et la dépression : étude pilote. Mémoire. Rouyn-Noranda, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, DHS, 129 pp.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

L’approche cognitivo-comportementale est un support pertinent et indiqué pour l’intervention auprès des jeunes dans la réduction des symptômes intériorisés (Turgeon et Parent, 2012). Le programme In vivo a été retenu dans le cadre de la présente étude, puisqu’il répond aux besoins du milieu ciblé, qui est d’agir sur la problématique de gestion du stress chez les jeunes ayant une vulnérabilité à l’anxiété et à la dépression. Le programme est soutenu par des interventions cognitivo-comportementales et l’un de ses avantages est son application en contexte réel et contrôlé, lors de la seconde partie des ateliers. Afin de répondre au besoin de développer des stratégies de gestion du stress de façon précoce (Chisholm et al., 2016; Organisation mondiale de la santé, 2016; Plan d’action en santé mentale 2015-2020, 2015), le programme sera implanté auprès de jeunes de 9 à 12 ans alors que la clientèle cible du programme est de 12 à 17 ans (Bluteau et Julien, 2015). Il s’agit d’une étude pilote qui vise plus spécifiquement à documenter la démarche d’implantation, évaluer la fidélité d’implantation auprès de quatre participants et mesurer l’effet de la participation sur la variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque nocturne des jeunes, qui est un marqueur de la régulation du stress. La première section expose la problématique qui comprend une recension sur la prévalence et les enjeux liés à la santé mentale chez les jeunes, présentant du fait même la pertinence d’une recherche sur un programme d’intervention auprès de cette clientèle. Le cadre de référence est ensuite présenté et explique la notion de stress, selon la perspective psycho-neuro-endocrinologique, qui fait état de la relation entre les cognitions, le système nerveux, les hormones et les comportements d’un individu. Dans la même section, le modèle de la théorie des programmes de Chen (2015) est exposé. Ce modèle a été utilisé dans le but d’évaluer la démarche d’implantation du programme. Il s’agit d’ailleurs du modèle utilisé par les concepteurs du programme lors de sa création. La section méthodologie comprend le devis de recherche et présente les instruments de mesure utilisés. La section résultats présente les données selon trois axes : les composantes du modèle d’action de Chen (2015), la fidélité d’implantation et l’analyse des effets du programme chez les jeunes. La variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque (VFC) est le marqueur biométrique ayant servi à mesurer les effets du programme sur les participants. La discussion fait état de propositions pour chacune des composantes évaluées dans l’optique d’une future implantation.

MOTS-CLÉS

Anxiété ; dépression ; enfant ; TCC ; variabilité de la fréquence cardiaque ; évaluation de programme.

Question Grills, A.E., Castine, E., Holt, M.K. (2018). Interview and Report Writing. In : J.L. Matson: Handbook of Childhood Psychopathology and Developmental Disabilities Assessment, pp 35-57. First Online: 14 September 2018. New York, Springer International Publishing.
AnswerABSTRACT

The interview is a critical component of the psychological assessment of a child. In addition to the standard unstructured interview conducted when first meeting new clients, several structured interviews have been developed for use with children and their parents/caregivers. This chapter is designed to introduce and familiarize the reader with techniques appropriate and effective for use during interviews when a child is the identified client, as well as to provide examples of several interviews commonly used in the assessment of children and adolescents. Specifically, we review key components of the first interview, provide information on unstructured and structured interviews, and discuss how to select interview procedures. In addition, we offer considerations in using interview procedures with children who have disabilities as well as other factors related to the use of interviews, such as language dominance. Finally, we close with an overview of report writing. Throughout the chapter, we highlight changes to existing assessments resulting from the recent transition to DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Publishing).

KEYWORD

Assessment, Reports, Interview, DSM-5 changes.

2017

Question Husky, M., M., Boyd, A., Bitfoi, A., Carta, M., G., Chan-Chee, C., Goelitz, D., Koç, C., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, S., Otten, R., Pez, O., Shojaei, T., Kovess-Masfety, V. (2017). Self-reported mental health in children ages 6–12 years across eight European countries, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, pp 1–11, First Online: 30 October 2017
AnswerABSTRACT

Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffers from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the self-reported prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6–11 years across eight European countries including Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Data were drawn from 6245 children participating in the School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) study and a large cross-sectional survey in France. Self-reported child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI). Overall, 22.0% of children were identified per their own evaluation as having at least one mental disorder, ranging from 16.4% in the Netherlands to 27.9% in Bulgaria. The prevalence of internalizing disorders was 18.4% across countries and ranged from 11.8% in the Netherlands to 24.3% in Turkey. The prevalence of externalizing disorders was lower with an average of 7.8%, ranging from 3.5% in Turkey to 10.5% in Bulgaria. Combining samples across European countries, 1 in 5 children reported internalizing problems and 1 in 12 children externalizing problems. The net completion rates of 4.1–74.3% preclude conclusions about national differences in prevalence rates.

Keywords : Child mental health Europe Prevalence Self-reported mental health

Question Husky, M., M., Keyes, K., Hamilton, A., Stragalinou, A., Pez, O., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., Kovess-Masfety, V., (2017) Maternal Problem Drinking and Child Mental Health, Substance Use and Misuse, Pages 1-9 | Published online: 13 Jul 2017
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: Offspring of individuals with alcohol use disorders have been shown to have elevated risk for mental health problems. Objectives: To examine the association between maternal problem drinking and child mental health as assessed by three informants in three European countries. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health in Europe study. Maternal alcohol use was assessed using the alcohol use disorders identification test. Child mental health was assessed using the mother and teacher versions of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire, and the child self-reported Dominic interactive. Analyses were performed on 2,678 individuals, 6–11 year olds. Results: Adjusting for variables associated with maternal drinking, among children eight years old or younger, excessive drinking was not significantly associated with mental health problems, whether reported by the mother, teacher or by the child. However, among girls eight years old and above, problem drinking was associated with conduct problems as reported by the mother (OR = 4.19), teacher reported total difficulties (OR = 4.69), and peer relationship problems (OR = 8.86). It was also associated with the presence of any child-reported disorder (OR = 3.88), externalizing (OR = 5.55) and internalizing disorders (OR = 4.42). Conclusions/Importance: Adjusting for sociodemographic variables and for psychological distress, maternal problem drinking was not significantly associated with child mental health problems in boys or in girls ages six to eight. The association was only present among girls ages 8–11. Examining relationships between mothers and their daughters in the peripubertal period may be a critical window for the development of effective intervention strategies.

KEYWORDS: Children, maternal alcohol use, mental health, multiple informants, problem drinking

Question Kovess-Masfety V., Sowa D., Keyes K., Husky M., Fermanian C., Bitfoi A., et al. (2017). The association between car accident fatalities and children’s fears: A study in seven EU countries. PLoS ONE, 12(8): e0181619. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181619
AnswerABSTRACT

Children’s fear of a car accident occurring to parents or themselves has been used as a concrete example to illustrate one of the symptoms of anxiety disorders such as separation anxiety and generalized anxiety. However, its usage across countries may be questionable where the prevalence of this specific type of injury differs. This cross-sectional study compares samples from seven diverse European countries (Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Romania, Turkey) to see if an environmental exposure, car accident death rate per 100,000 people (country-wide from WHO data), is associated with children’s self-report of car accident fears. In this study, 6–11 year-old children were surveyed by a diagnostic instrument (Dominic Interactive) about several situations and asked if they believed they were similar to a fictional child depicted in said situations. Mothers were surveyed for additional sociodemographic information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to adjust for covariates including mother’s age, mother’s education, single parenting, and mother’s professional inactivity. We report a monotonic relationship between higher car accident death rates and the prevalence of children reporting fear of parent’s or own accident. Relative to a reference of 3.9 deaths per 100,000 people, children’s odds of reporting fear of parent’s accident ranged from 1.99 (95% CI 1.51–2.61) times to 4.84 (95% CI 3.68–6.37) times as the risk of death by car accident increased across countries. A similar result arose from fear of child’s own accident, with significant ORs ranging from 1.91 (95% CI 1.53–2.40) to 2.68 (95% CI 2.07–3.47) alongside increased death rates. Given that reporting of these fears accompanies correspondingly high accident death rates, the pertinence of using fear of car accidents as an illustration for some diagnostic item for mental disorders cross-nationally appears to be an issue.

Question Kovess-Masfety, V., Van Engelen, J., Stone, L., Otten, R., Carta, M., G., Bitfoi, A., Koç, C., Goelitz, D., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Fermanian, C., Pez, O., Husky, M., (2017). Unmet Need for Specialty Mental Health Services Among Children Across Europe. Psychiatric Services. appips201600409.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the determinants of use of mental health services for children across Europe, with a specific focus on differences in the availability of mental health resources. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe Project. Parent- and teacher-reported child mental health status was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics of parents and children, as well as academic performance and use of mental health services in the previous 12 months, were collected. Countries were categorized as having high versus low mental health resources. The sample comprised 4,894 schoolchildren in seven countries. Results: Across Europe, only 25.6% of children with a mental disorder had received mental health services in the previous 12 months, including 31.5% in high-resources countries and 18.9% in low-resources countries (p=.001) (N=4,867). The presence of any mental disorder, maternal psychological distress, gender, living in a single-parent home, and low academic performance were determinants of service use. The effect of resources group on the likelihood of receiving services remained significant when the analyses controlled for all predictors (odds ratio=1.41, p

Question Kovess-Masfety, V., Lesinskiene, S., Husky, M., M., Boyd, A., Ha, P., Fermanian, C., Pez, O., (2017). Risk factors for child mental health problems in Lithuania: The role of parental nationality. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 73, 15-22.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background : We compare the mental health status of children who reside in Lithuania with parents who are either Lithuanian nationals or non-Lithuanian nationals. Method : Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health Europe survey (SCMHE), a cross-sectional survey of school children aged 6–11 years. A total of 1152 Lithuanian children participated, among them 11.7% from a non-Lithuanian family. Child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI) and the parent- and teacher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parental attitudes were evaluated, and socio-demographics were collected. Results :Overall 26.7% of non-Lithuanian versus 17.2% of Lithuanian children reported having an internalizing disorder (p = 0.01) mainly due to separation anxiety (16.4% versus 10.2%, p = 0.04). Odds ratio (OR) for child-reported internalizing disorders was 1.86 (95% CI = 1.17–2.96) once adjusted for other factors including being a girl, to be younger, parental unemployment and low caring and low autonomy parental attitudes which were associated with greater odds of internalizing disorders. In addition, 31.9% of non-Lithuanian reported suicidal thoughts versus 22.0% of Lithuanian children p = .02); OR = 1.60 (95% CI = 1.04–2.46) once adjusted for single parent, parental unemployment, parental alcohol problems and overreactivity attitude. Conclusions :Being a non-national minority in Lithuania is a risk factor for child mental health. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to inform local policy-makers on targeted prevention and intervention programs in these children.

Question J Desjardins, J., Lafortune, D., Cyr, F., (2017). Psychopharmacotherapy in children placed in group homes and residential centres in Canada: Psychopathological portrait of children receiving psychotropic medications and educators' perception of treatment. Children and Youth Services Review, 81, 197-206.
AnswerABSTRACT

This article aims to show the psychopathology portrait of Canadian children placed in foster care (foster group homes and rehabilitationcentres) receiving psychotropic medications, and to clarify their overall level of functioning. It also focuses on educators’ knowledge and perceptions of psychopharmacotherapy. A group of medicated children (n = 71) was compared to a group of non-medicated children (n = 30). Children and their educators were interviewed, and an analysis of youths’ institutional files was also performed. Results showed that medicated boys and girls taking one or more medications had a diagnosis of a mental disorder recorded in their files more often than non-medicated children (p < 0.05). Based on educators’ perceptions, these children displayed more attention problems, social skill difficulties, aggressive behaviors, anxiety and depression symptoms, thought problems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (p < 0.05). Their overall functioning was also more disturbed in comparison to non-medicated children (p < 0.05), as were their moods, thoughts and behaviors towards others (p < 0.05). However, based on the child’s perspective (semi-structured interview), no distinction can be made between medicated and non-medicated children, since both groups reported comparable levels of symptoms and diagnostic signs. At last, results of the regression model showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms and educators’ favorable opinion concerning psychopharmacotherapy were significantly associated with the use of prescribed medications. Implications are discussed.

Keywords : Children, Psychopharmacotherapy, Youth protection, Psychopathology

Question Lorber M.F., Maisson D.J.N., Slep A.M.S., Heyman R.E., Wolff M.S. (2017). Mechanisms linking interparental aggression to child dental caries. Caries Research, 2017;51:149-159.
AnswerABSTRACT

Research has garnered support for a systemic view of factors affecting child dental caries that accounts for the influence of social factors such as the family environment. Our previous work has demonstrated the association between mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. The present study builds on these results by evaluating pathways that might explain this relation. Families (n = 135) completed a multimethod assessment of mother-to-father emotional aggression, child caries, and several hypothesized mediators (i.e., child cariogenic snack and drink intake, child internalizing behaviors, child salivary cortisol and α-amylase reactivity, parental laxness, child oral hygiene maintenance, and parental socialization of child oral hygiene maintenance). Mediation analyses partially supported the role of the child’s diet as a mechanism linking mother-to-father emotional aggression and child caries. However, children’s neglect of oral hygiene, parental laxness, and child emotional and biological disturbances failed to stand as conduits for this association. Future investigations should expand upon these results to better establish the causal links that could only be suggested by the present cross-sectional findings.

Question Smith, G.C., Hayslip, B., Hancock, G.R., Merchant, W., Montoro-Rodriguez, J., Strieder, F., (2017). The Family Stress Model as it Applies to Custodial Grandfamilies: A Cross Validation. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 1-17. First Online: 09 October 2017
AnswerABSTRACT

There is scant research on how the parenting practices of custodial grandmothers affect the psychological adjustment of grandchildren in their care. Yet, the findings from a handful of prior studies suggest the relevance of the Family Stress Model (FSM) to these caregivers. The present study further tested the FSM with baseline data from 343 custodial grandmothers (Mage = 58.5 years) enrolled in a clinical trial of the efficacy of interventions for improving the well-being of their families. Not only was this “help-seeking” sample atypical of prior FSM studies, but also unique to the present study was our addition of multiple parenting practices, self-reported and clinical ratings of grandmothers’ distress, and reports of grandchildren’s internalizing and externalizing difficulties from grandchildren and grandmothers. Mplus 7.31 was used to test a model where the effect of grandmother distress on grandchildren’s internalizing and externalizing difficulties was hypothesized to be indirect through five distinct parenting practices. The findings regarding both the measurement and structural models fit the observed data well, and invariance was largely found across grandchildren’s gender and age (4–7 vs. 8–12). Although grandchildren’s self-reported internalizing and externalizing difficulties were unrelated to grandmothers’ distress and parenting practices, the grandmothers’ reports of these outcomes were generally related to their own distress and parenting practices as hypothesized. However, considerable variation was found across the five parenting practices in terms of their relationships to the other FSM constructs. We conclude that data from multiple informants and measures of assorted parenting practices are essential to future research and practice.

Question Poulin, Caroline (2017). « L'adaptation des enfants d'âge scolaire hébergés en centre jeunesse : les rôles de la sévérité de la maltraitance et de la qualité de la relation entre l'enfant et son éducateur de suivi » Thèse. Montréal (Québec, Canada), Université du Québec à Montréal, Doctorat en psychologie.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

Cet essai doctoral a pour objectif de mieux comprendre l’adaptation socioaffective des enfants d’âge scolaire ayant été maltraités et étant actuellement hébergés en milieu institutionnel, en considérant la sévérité des expériences de maltraitance vécue avant leur hébergement et la qualité de la relation avec leur éducateur. L’essai examine l’effet modérateur de la qualité relationnelle enfant-éducateur sur le lien entre la sévérité de l’histoire de maltraitance/placement et les problèmes de comportement intériorisé/extériorisé ainsi que les pensées suicidaires. L’échantillon est composé de 37 dyades enfant-éducateur issues de 8 unités d’hébergement et foyers de groupe du centre jeunesse de Montréal hébergeant des enfants d’âge scolaire ayant été maltraités et pouvant manifester d’importants troubles de comportement. La sévérité de l’histoire de maltraitance a été évaluée à partir de 4 composantes (le nombre de types différents de mauvais traitements et la fréquence, la chronicité et l’âge d’apparition de la maltraitance) et l’histoire de placement à partir de 3 composantes (le nombre et la durée des placements ainsi que l’âge lors du premier placement). La qualité de la relation entre l’enfant et son éducateur a été évaluée à l’aide du questionnaire Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS) et les problèmes de comportement à partir d’une mesure d’auto-évaluation, le Dominique-Interactif. Les résultats montrent que la qualité relationnelle modère le lien entre la sévérité de l’histoire de placement des enfants et la présence de problèmes de comportement intériorisé. À savoir, les enfants ayant été placés à un plus jeune âge et ayant vécu de multiples placements sur une durée prolongée présentent moins de problèmes intériorisés si la relation avec leur éducateur est de bonne qualité. Par contre, ce bénéfice relationnel ne semble pas protéger les enfants présentant des pensées suicidaires puisque, pour ces derniers, l’histoire de maltraitance antérieure continue d’être un prédicteur important. Aucun effet de la relation n’est trouvé pour les problèmes extériorisés. Cet essai souligne combien l’histoire de la maltraitance et de placement continue à jouer un rôle dans la manifestation de l’adaptation socio-affective des enfants hébergés. En particulier, il permet une réflexion plus approfondie quant au rôle protecteur de l’éducateur pour ces enfants.

Question WORLD PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION INTER ZONAL CONGRESS, VILNIUS, LITHUANIA, 3–6 MAY 2017. ORAL SESSION ABSTRACTS BOOK LAST EDITED 5/01/17 SL1-1 SCMHE Project: Purpose and Methodology: The Role of Parental Attitudes on Children Mental Health Viviane Kovess-Masfety EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Mauro Carta Department of Public Health, Center of Liaison Psychiatry Cagliari University, Cagliari, Italy, Adina Bitfoi, The Romanian League for Mental Health, Bucharest, Romania, Ceren Koç The Yeniden Health and Education Society, Istanbul, Turkey, Dietmar Goelitz Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany, Sigita Lesinskienė Vilnius University Medical Faculty Psychiatric Clinic, Vilnius, Lithuania Zlatka Mihova New Bulgaria University, Sofia, Bulgaria, Roy Otten Radboud University, Nijmegen, Gelderland, the Netherlands, Anders Boyd Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique Universite Paris 6 Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, Mathilde Husky Department of Psychology, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France Christine Chan-Chee EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Ondine Pez Paris Descartes University, Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Santé Publique (EHESP), Paris, France
AnswerABSTRACT The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aimed to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children’s mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerned primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years. Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. Instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive) a video type self administered instrument for children. In addition Parenting Scales were included measuring laxness, over-reactivity, verbosity, autonomy and care together with main parent’s socio-demographic variables, parental 8 psychological distress (MH5) and child’ school achievements as evaluated by teachers. A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Information was available on 7,072 Children from six countries (Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) .The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%; 4611 mothers did respond and kept for these analyses. Most of the social variables : mother education, profession, age, number of children , psychological distress , including country appurtenance are correlated to each of the five Parental attitudes; child’s gender is correlated to autonomy promoting and marital statute with low caring. Each attitude except verbosity is significantly correlated to the presence of any child diagnostic as predicted by SDQ proposed algorithm (R.Goodman). In a multivariate analysis mother psychological distress (OR=2.37), not being single child, being a boy (OR 2,63) , single parenthood (OR 1,66) predict any diagnostic together with overreacting which corresponds to harsh parenting (OR=1.86) and country differences mostly disappear. Since some parental attitudes seem so much linked to child mental health, parenting support programs should be implemented in a culturally appropriate manner.
Question WORLD PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION INTER ZONAL CONGRESS, VILNIUS, LITHUANIA, 3–6 MAY 2017. ORAL SESSION ABSTRACTS BOOK LAST EDITED 5/01/17 9 SL1-2 Children‘s Mental Health across 8 Countries: Results from Self-Evaluation Using the DI Mathilde Husky Department of Psychology, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France Viviane Kovess-Masfety EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Mauro Carta Department of Public Health, Center of Liaison Psychiatry Cagliari University, Cagliari, Italy, Adina Bitfoi, The Romanian League for Mental Health, Bucharest, Romania, Ceren Koç The Yeniden Health and Education Society, Istanbul, Turkey, Dietmar Goelitz Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany, Sigita Lesinskienė Vilnius University Medical Faculty Psychiatric Clinic, Vilnius, Lithuania Zlatka Mihova New Bulgaria University, Sofia, Bulgaria, Roy Otten Radboud University, Nijmegen, Gelderland, the Netherlands, Anders Boyd Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique Universite Paris 6 Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, Christine Chan-Chee EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Ondine Pez Paris Descartes University, Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Santé Publique (EHESP), Paris, France
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: Worldwide, approximately one in eight children or adolescents suffer from a mental disorder. The present study was designed to determine the cross-national prevalence of mental health problems in children aged 6 to 11 across eight European countries including Italy, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) study to which was added data from related study conducted in France. Self-reported child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI), a computerized instrument designed to identify the probable presence of DSM-IV mental disorders. In addition, socio-demographic characteristics of parents and children were collected. The sample included 6,318 children. 10 Results: Overall and per their own evaluation, 23.1% of children were identified as having at least one mental disorder ranging from 16.1% in the Netherlands to 27.2% in Bulgaria. The prevalence of internalizing disorders ranged from 11.7% in the Netherlands to 24.7% in Turkey with an average of 19.5% across countries. The prevalence of externalizing disorders was lower with an average of 8.8%, ranging from 6.2% in Romania to 14.7% in France. Girls were more likely to report internalizing disorders including specific phobia and generalized anxiety disorder, while boys were more likely to report externalizing disorders but there were no gender differences with regard to depression. Conclusions: There are important differences in self-reported mental health across Europe. Controlling for a number of sociodemographic and parental variables, children in France and in Bulgaria were more likely to report externalizing or internalizing disorders as compared to children in other European countries.

Question WORLD PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION INTER ZONAL CONGRESS, VILNIUS, LITHUANIA, 3–6 MAY 2017. ORAL SESSION ABSTRACTS BOOK LAST EDITED 5/01/17 11 SL1-3 Children‘s Mental Health in Lithuania – Possibilities and Challenges Sigita Lesinskienė Vilnius University Medical Faculty Psychiatric Clinic, Vilnius, Lithuania Viviane Kovess-Masfety EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Mauro Carta Department of Public Health, Center of Liaison Psychiatry Cagliari University, Cagliari, Italy, Adina Bitfoi, The Romanian League for Mental Health, Bucharest, Romania, Ceren Koç The Yeniden Health and Education Society, Istanbul, Turkey, Dietmar Goelitz Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany, Zlatka Mihova New Bulgaria University, Sofia, Bulgaria, Roy Otten Radboud University, Nijmegen, Gelderland, the Netherlands, Anders Boyd Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique Universite Paris 6 Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, Mathilde Husky Department of Psychology, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France Christine Chan-Chee EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Ondine Pez Paris Descartes University, Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Santé Publique (EHESP), Paris, France
Answer

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Survey of School children mental health Europe (SCMHE) gave possibility for preparation of the screening and diagnostic instruments, cross-country comparisons and collaboration. Method: Primary school children aged 6 to 11 years were investigated in 7 European countries: Bulgaria, Germany, Italy, Lithuania, Netherlands, Romania and Turkey (2009-2011), 9084 children participated. Child mental health was assessed using the Dominique Interactive (DI) and the parent- and teacher Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Parental attitudes, caring behaviour and socio-demographics were collected. A total of 1,152 Lithuanian children participated, among them 11.7 % from a non-L family. 12 Results: Main findings of the survey will be presented. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Childeren with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9% (in LT 144%). Overall 26.72% of non-L versus 17.19 % of L children reported having an internalizing disorders (p=0.01) mainly due to separation anxiety (16.39% versus 10.15%, p=0.04). Odd ratio (OR) for child reported internalizing disorders are 3.29 (1.34-8.06) once adjusted for other factors: being a girl, parental unemployment and to a lesser extent low caring parental attitude. In addition, 31.9% of non-L reported suicidal thoughts versus 22.03% of L children (p=0.002). Conclusions: Data from LT showed more serious problems in many investigated areas comparing with the other countries. Intersectorial action remains a complex and challenging area of policy development and practice. Being a non-national minority in Lithuania is a serious risk factor for child mental health. These findings suggest further studies are needed to inform local policy-makers on targeted prevention and intervention.

Question WORLD PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION INTER ZONAL CONGRESS, VILNIUS, LITHUANIA, 3–6 MAY 2017. ORAL SESSION ABSTRACTS BOOK LAST EDITED 5/01/17 13 SL1-4 Unmet Need for Specialty Mental Health Services in Children across Europe Children Access to Care in SCMHE Mauro Carta Department of Public Health, Center of Liaison Psychiatry Cagliari University, Cagliari, Italy, Viviane Kovess-Masfety EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Adina Bitfoi, The Romanian League for Mental Health, Bucharest, Romania, Ceren Koç The Yeniden Health and Education Society, Istanbul, Turkey, Dietmar Goelitz Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nurnberg, Erlangen, Germany, Sigita Lesinskienė Vilnius University Medical Faculty Psychiatric Clinic, Vilnius, Lithuania Zlatka Mihova New Bulgaria University, Sofia, Bulgaria, Roy Otten Radboud University, Nijmegen, Gelderland, the Netherlands, Anders Boyd Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique Universite Paris 6 Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France, Mathilde Husky Department of Psychology, University of Bordeaux, Talence, France Christine Chan-Chee EHESP EA 4057 Paris Descartes Fondation Deniker, Paris, France Ondine Pez Paris Descartes University, Ecole des Hautes Etudes de Santé Publique (EHESP), Paris, France
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the current study is to examine the determinants of use of mental health services for children across Europe, with a specific focus on differences in the availability of mental health resources. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Child Mental Health in Europe (SCHME) project), a cross-sectional survey conducted in seven countries including Netherlands, Italy, Germany, Lithuania, Bulgaria, Romania, and Turkey in 2010. Parent- and teacher- reported child mental health status was based on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Socio-demographic characteristics of parents and children, as well as academic performance and use of mental health services in the previous 12 months were collected. Countries were categorized into high- 14 (HMHR) versus low-mental health resources (LMHR) groups. Sample comprised 4,894 children enrolled in school in the seven countries. Results: Across Europe, only 25.63% of children with a disorder had received mental health services in the previous 12 months; 31.5% in HMHR versus 18.9% in LMHR (p=.001). The presence of any disorder, maternal psychological distress, gender, living in a single-parent home and low academic performance were determinants of service use. The effect of resources group remained significant when controlling for all predictors (OR =1.41 p=.0019). Determinants differed between groups with an effect of maternal psychological distress in high-resources countries and gender in low-resources countries. Conclusions: The findings point to a substantial portion of unmet need across Europe and to major differences in access to care to in low versus high resources countries. Overall, the results suggest that efforts are needed to address the serious level of unmet need in children with mental health problems, especially in low-resources countries.

Question Piché, G., Cournoyer, M., Bergeron, L., Clément, M, Smolla, N. (2017). Épidémiologie des troubles dépressifs et anxieux chez les enfants et les adolescents québécois. Santé mentale au Québec, 42, 1, 19–42.
AnswerRésumé

L’épidémiologie de la santé mentale des enfants et des adolescents est une discipline relativement récente et souvent méconnue, notamment au Québec. Certains travaux ont cependant permis d’estimer la prévalence des troubles mentaux les plus fréquents chez les jeunes, tels que les troubles anxieux et dépressifs, ainsi que les caractéristiques individuelles, familiales et socioéconomiques qui y sont associées. Cet article poursuit deux objectifs : présenter une recension des principaux résultats de recherche en épidémiologie pédopsychiatrique au Québec et mettre en évidence l’apport de ces résultats pour la santé publique. Afin d’atteindre ces objectifs, cet article présente les résultats de recherche en lien avec trois thématiques : 1) la mesure et l’identification des troubles anxieux et dépressifs chez les enfants et les adolescents ; 2) la prévalence de ces troubles et la comorbidité ; 3) les variables associées aux troubles anxieux et dépressifs identifiées dans les études épidémiologiques. Les auteurs souligneront les implications futures de ces résultats à travers les politiques québécoises dans le domaine de la santé publique.

Mots clés : épidémiologie, dépression, anxiété, enfant, adolescent

Abstract

Epidemiology of depressive and anxiety disorders among Quebec children and adolescents Epidemiology of child and adolescent mental health is a relatively new discipline, particularly in the province of Quebec. Some work has however estimated the prevalence of the most common mental disorders among young people, such as anxiety and depression, as well as identified associated individual, family and socio-economic variables. This article has two objectives: to present a review of major epidemiological research findings in child psychiatry conducted in the province of Quebec and highlight the contribution of these findings for public health. To achieve these objectives, this article presents the results of research related to three themes: 1) measurement and identification of anxiety and depressive disorders in children and adolescents, 2) the prevalence of these disorders and comorbidity, 3) the correlates of anxiety and depressive disorders identified in epidemiological studies. The authors will then highlight future implications of these results across Québec policies in the field of public health.

Keywords: epidemiology, depression, anxiety, child, adolescent

2016

Question Kovess-Masfety, V., Keyes, K., Hamilton, A., Hanson, G., Bitfoi, A., Golitz, D., Koç, C., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R, Fermanian, C., Pez, O., (2016). Is time spent playing video games associated with mental health, cognitive and social skills in young children? Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 51, 3, 349-357.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: Video games are one of the favourite leisure activities of children; the influence on child health is usually perceived to be negative. The present study assessed the association between the amount of time spent playing video games and children mental health as well as cognitive and social skills. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Europe project conducted in six European Union countries (youth ages 6–11, n = 3195). Child mental health was assessed by parents and teachers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and by children themselves with the Dominic Interactive. Child video game usage was reported by the parents. Teachers evaluated academic functioning. Multivariable logistic regressions were used. Results: 20 % of the children played video games more than 5 h per week. Factors associated with time spent playing video games included being a boy, being older, and belonging to a medium size family. Having a less educated, single, inactive, or psychologically distressed mother decreased time spent playing video games. Children living in Western European countries were significantly less likely to have high video game usage (9.66 vs 20.49 %) though this was not homogenous. Once adjusted for child age and gender, number of children, mothers age, marital status, education, employment status, psychological distress, and region, high usage was associated with 1.75 times the odds of high intellectual functioning (95 % CI 1.31–2.33), and 1.88 times the odds of high overall school competence (95 % CI 1.44–2.47). Once controlled for high usage predictors, there were no significant associations with any child self-reported or mother- or teacher-reported mental health problems. High usage was associated with decreases in peer relationship problems [OR 0.41 (0.2–0.86) and in prosocial deficits (0.23 (0.07, 0.81)].

Conclusions: Playing video games may have positive effects on young children. Understanding the mechanisms through which video game use may stimulate children should be further investigated.

Keywords: Mental health, Children Epidemiology, Gambling

Question Kovess-Masfety, V., Husky, M., Pitrou, I., Fermanian, C., Shojaei, T., Chan Chee, C., Siddiqi, A., Beiser, M., (2016). Differential impact of parental region of birth on negative parenting behavior and its effects on child mental health: Results from a large sample of 6 to 11 year old school children in France. BMC Psychiatry, 16, 123.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: In France, one in 10 residents has immigrated mainly from North Africa, West Africa or the Caribbean including the French West Indies. However little is known about how parents from these regions behave when they migrate to countries that have different cultural norms. It is therefore important to determine how ethno-cultural background affects parental behavior and subsequent child mental health in the context of immigration. The objectives are: 1) to compare negative parenting behaviors of French residents from diverse ethno-cultural backgrounds 2) to examine the relationship between parental region of origin and child mental health, and 3) to investigate the extent to which ethno-cultural context moderates the effect of parenting styles on child mental health. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2005 in 100 schools in South-East France. The Dominic Interactive and the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire were used to assess child psychopathology. The Parent Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire was used to assess parenting styles. The final sample included data on 1,106 mother and child dyads. Results: Caring and punitive attitudes were significantly different across mothers as a function of region of origin. This association was stronger for punitive attitudes with the highest prevalence in the Caribbean/African group, while mothers from Maghreb were more similar to French natives. Differences in caring behaviors were similar though less pronounced. Among children of Maghrebian descent, punitive parenting was associated with an increased risk of internalizing disorders while this association was weaker among children of African and Afro-Caribbean descent. Conclusions: Parental region of origin is an important component of both parenting styles and their effect on child mental health. Interventions on parenting should consider both the region of origin and the differential impact of origin on the effect of parenting styles, thus allowing for a finer-grained focus on high-risk groups.

Keywords: Children Internalizing disorders, Externalizing disorders, Mental health, Parenting styles, Ethno-cultural background

Question Boldt, L., J., Kochanska, G., Grekin, R., Brock, R., L., (2016). Attachment in middle childhood: predictors, correlates, and implications for adaptation. Attachment & human development, 18, 2, 115-140.
AnswerABSTRACT

Middle childhood is a relative lacuna in behavioral attachment research. We examined antecedents, correlates, and implications of parent–child attachment at age 10 in a longitudinal study of community families from a Midwestern US state (N = 102, mothers, fathers, and children). Dimensions of security, avoidance, ambivalence, and disorganization of children’s attachment to each parent were observed in lengthy naturalistic interactions and assessed using Iowa Attachment Behavioral Coding (IABC). IABC scores were meaningfully associated with history of parental responsiveness (7–80 months) and with earlier and concurrent attachment security, assessed with other established instruments (parent- and observer-rated Attachment Q-Set at 25 months, children’s reports at age 8 and 10). Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that the overall history of responsive care was meaningfully associated with Security, Avoidance, and Disorganization at age 10, in both mother–child and father–child relationships, and that most recent care uniquely predicted Security. IABC scores were also meaningfully related to a broad range of measures of child adaptation at ages 10–12. Cumulative history of children’s security from infancy to middle childhood, integrating measures across relationships and methodologies, also predicted child adaptation at ages 10–12.

KEYWORDS: Attachment, middle childhood, parenting, child adaptive outcomes, child maladaptive outcomes

Question Cournoyer, M., Labelle, R., Berthiaume, C., Bergreon, L., (2016). Quels sont les syndromes du DSM-5 les plus associés aux idées suicidaires chez les adolescents? Analyses selon l'âge et le sexe. Revue Canadienne de psychoéducation, 45,1, 41-62.
AnswerRESUMÉ

Cette étude transversale vise à déterminer la force d’association entre cinq catégories de syndromes du DSM-5 et les idées suicidaires en fonction de l’âge et du sexe. Quatre cent soixante-quatre jeunes âgés de 12 à 15 ans en contexte scolaire (237 filles; 227 garçons) et 141 adolescents en milieu clinique (62 filles et 79 garçons) de Montréal participent à l’étude. Chaque adolescent complète le Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents, un instrument d’évaluation de la santé mentale. En contexte scolaire, 8,6 % des adolescents présentent des idées suicidaires et 37,6 % en milieu clinique. Les résultats indiquent une forte association entre les idées suicidaires et la dépression dans les deux échantillons, indépendamment de l’âge et du sexe. Dans l’échantillon scolaire, les adolescents déprimés et les jeunes âgés de 14 et 15 ans sont plus susceptibles de présenter des idées suicidaires. De plus, les garçons avec des comportements perturbateurs et les filles présentant des symptômes de TDAH ont plus de possibilité d’avoir des idées suicidaires. Dans l’échantillon clinique, les syndromes associés aux idées suicidaires sont la dépression et la consommation de substances. La présence de dépression représente un facteur de vulnérabilité important, tant chez les filles que chez les garçons indépendamment de l’échantillon scolaire ou clinique. De plus, la présence de l’une ou l’autre des cinq catégories de syndromes psychiatriques, telle que nous l’avons évaluée, augmente le risque de présenter des idées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Les résultats de cette étude appuient la pertinence d’une identification précoce des syndromes du DSM-5 et l’importance du dépistage précoce chez les jeunes du secondaire.

Mots clés : Adolescents, idées suicidaires, troubles mentaux, âge, sexe

ABSTRACT Which syndromes of the DSM-5 is most associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents? Analysis by age and gender This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the strength of association between five categories of syndromes of the DSM-5 and suicidal ideation according to age and sex. From Montreal area, 464 youth aged from 12 to 15 years were met in school setting (237 girls, 227 boys) and 141 adolescents were met in clinical setting (62 girls and 79 boys). Each teenager complete the Dominic Adolescent, a self-report measure to conveniently and quickly garner DSM-5 diagnostic-approximates about frequent mental health problems. Suicidal ideations were found in 8.6% of adolescents in school context and 37.6% in the clinical setting. Results show a strong association between suicide and depression in both samples, regardless of age and gender. In the school sample, depressed adolescents and youth aged 14 and 15 years are more likely to have suicidal thoughts. Moreover, boys with disruptive behaviors and girls with ADHD symptoms have more possibility of having suicidal thoughts. In clinical setting, depression syndrome and substance use are associated to suicidal thoughts. Depression is an important vulnerability factor for both girls and boys regardless of school or clinical sample. The presence of one of those five categories of psychiatric syndromes increases the risk for suicide thoughts in adolescents aged between 12 and 15 years old. Results from this study support the relevance of early identification of DSM-5 syndromes and the importance of early screening among high school students.

Keywords: Adolescents, suicidal ideation, mental health, age, gender

Question Zavaglia Elissa (2016). Étude de l’effet d’interaction entre l’âge, le sexe, et les problèmes anxieux ou les comportements perturbateurs associés à la dépression, chez les adolescents de 12 à 15 ans. Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation, Département de psychologie, Faculté des arts et des sciences, Université de Montréal.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

Il y a peu de recherche sur la comorbidité concomitante entre les problèmes de santé mentale et la dépression, tels que perçus par les adolescents de 12-15 ans. L’objectif de cette étude est d’effectuer des analyses secondaires pour vérifier l’association entre quatre problèmes de santé mentale (phobies spécifiques (PS), anxiété généralisée (AG), opposition avec provocation (OP), problème des conduites (PC)) et la dépression ainsi que les interactions de ces associations avec l’âge (12-13 ans; 14-15 ans) et le sexe. Ces problèmes ont été évalués par le Dominique Interactif pour Adolescents (DIA), un questionnaire informatisé et auto-administré. L’analyse de la régression logistique a été réalisée séparément dans un échantillon clinique (n=141) et dans un échantillon scolaire (n=464) composés d’adolescents francophones. Les résultats indiquent un effet d’interaction significatif dans l’échantillon clinique suggérant que les filles ont trois fois plus de chance d’avoir une comorbidité entre les PS et la dépression comparativement aux garçons. Les modèles multivariés révèlent que pour les autres associations, la comorbidité ne varie pas significativement selon l’âge et le sexe. Cependant, dans les deux échantillons, une forte association entre AG, OP, ou PC et la dépression a été observé indépendamment de l’âge et du sexe, ce qui suggère l’importance de la comorbidité globale entre ces problèmes. L’utilisation du DIA pour évaluer la perception des adolescents concernant leurs problèmes de santé mentale représente une contribution originale de cette étude. Les résultats obtenus suggèrent que l’évaluation clinique de la comorbidité devrait inclure l’information provenant de l’adolescent.

ABSTRACT

There is a lack of research on concurrent comorbidity between mental health problems and depression in youth aged 12-15 years based on adolescent-reports. The objective of this study is to assess the presence of this type of comorbidity and its variation across age and sex subgroups. Secondary analyses were conducted to examine the associations between four mental health problems (specific phobia (SPh), generalized anxiety (GAD), oppositional (ODD) and conduct disorders (CD) and depression, as well as interaction effects with age-groups (12-13 years; 14-15 years) and sex. Mental health problems were measured by the Dominic Interactive for Adolescents (DIA), a highly structured computerized self-report measure. Multivariate logistic regression models were built separately in clinical (n=141) and school (n=464) samples of French-speaking adolescents. There was a significant interaction effect in the clinical sample suggesting that girls were 3 times more likely to present comorbidity between SPh and depression compared to boys. Multivariate models revealed that for other patterns of comorbidity, there was no significant variation of comorbidity across age or sex subgroups. In both samples, global comorbidity was found for GAD, CD, or ODD and depression. Findings highlighted an important comorbidity between anxiety or disruptive problems and depression regardless of age and sex. Measuring the perception of these problems by adolescents aged 12-15 years using the DIA represents an original contribution. It suggests that clinical evaluation of comorbidity should take into account adolescent-reports.

Keywords Comorbidité, Problèmes de santé mentale, Dépression, Adolescents, Comorbidity, Mental health problems, Depression, Psychology – General / Psychologie

Question Cournoyer, Marilou (2016). « Comment expliquer les idées suicidaires chez les jeunes de 12 à 17 ans en populations scolaires et cliniques » Thèse. Montréal (Québec, Canada), Université du Québec à Montréal.
AnswerABSTRACT

Cette thèse de doctorat porte sur l’examen des variables développementales (âge, sexe), environnementales (événements de vie stressants), personnelles (impulsivité et agressivité), cognitives (désespoir et difficultés de résolution de problèmes) et les troubles mentaux (dépression, anxiété, comportements perturbateurs, TDAH, consommation de substances) susceptibles d’expliquer la présence d’idées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Pour ce faire, deux études transversales constituent ce travail de recherche. En plus de l’introduction et de la conclusion, cette thèse comprend six chapitres, à savoir : 1) le cadre théorique et les objectifs, 2) la méthodologie, 3) le premier article publié dans la Revue de psychoéducation, 4) le deuxième article publié dans la Revue québécoise de psychologie, 5) le troisième manuscrit qui sera soumis à la revue américaine Adolescence, et 6) la discussion générale. Le premier article vise à déterminer la force d’association entre cinq catégories de syndromes (anxieux, dépressifs, consommation de substances [cigarettes, alcool ou drogues], TDAH, comportements perturbateurs) et les idées suicidaires en fonction de l’âge et du sexe. Pour ce faire, la première étude porte sur un échantillon scolaire de 464 jeunes (237 filles et 227 garçons) sélectionnés dans six écoles de la région de Montréal, ainsi que sur un échantillon clinique de 141 adolescents (62 filles et 79 garçons) sélectionnés dans cinq hôpitaux (Rivière-des-Prairies, Notre-Dame, Sacré-Cœur, Jean-Talon et Charles-Lemoyne). Les adolescents inclus dans cette étude sont âgés de 12 à 15 ans. Les résultats indiquent une forte association entre les idées suicidaires et la dépression dans les deux échantillons, indépendamment de l’âge et du sexe. Dans l’échantillon scolaire, les adolescents déprimés et les jeunes âgés de 14 et 15 ans sont plus susceptibles de présenter des idées suicidaires. De plus, les garçons avec des comportements perturbateurs et les filles présentant des symptômes de TDAH ont plus de possibilités d’avoir des idées suicidaires. Dans l’échantillon clinique, les syndromes associés aux idées suicidaires sont la dépression et la consommation de substances. Le deuxième article tente de déterminer quelles sont les variables développementales (âge, sexe), environnementales (événements de vie stressants), personnelles (impulsivité et agressivité) et les troubles mentaux (dépression, anxiété, comportements perturbateurs) susceptibles d’expliquer la présence d’idées suicidaires chez les adolescentes. Pour se faire, l’échantillon retenu est constitué de 236 adolescents des classes régulières d’une école secondaire privée de la région de Montréal (129 filles et 106 garçons, une donnée manquante) de 12 à 17 ans (M = 14,6 ans). Les résultats suggèrent des différences sexuelles dans les variables associées aux idées suicidaires. Chez les filles suicidaires, plus d’événements de vie stressants, d’impulsivité, d’agressivité, d’anxiété, de dépression et de comportements perturbateurs sont rapportés. Les garçons suicidaires, comparativement aux garçons non suicidaires ont plus d’anxiété, de dépression et de comportements perturbateurs. Les résultats de la régression hiérarchique indiquent que le sexe (fille), le nombre d’événements de vie, l’agressivité et la dépression contribuent à expliquer une part significative de la variance des idées suicidaires. Le troisième article évalue l’influence du désespoir et de la résolution de problèmes sur le risque de présenter des idées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Cet article cherche à préciser le rôle médiateur des troubles intériorisés et extériorisés, l’impulsivité et l’agressivité sur le lien entre le désespoir et la résolution de problèmes et les idées suicidaires. L’objectif secondaire de cette étude est de déterminer l’effet du sexe de l’adolescent pour mieux expliquer l’association entre les différentes variables à l’étude et les idées suicidaires. Les analyses sont réalisées auprès du même échantillon de 236 adolescents (129 filles ou 106 garçons, une donnée manquante) d’une école secondaire privée de la région de Montréal. Les données de cette étude suggèrent la présence de différences sexuelles, ce qui appuie la pertinence de réaliser des analyses séparément selon le sexe. Ainsi, deux modèles de médiation ont été constitués et testés. Les résultats obtenus démontrent un effet indirect des difficultés de résolution de problèmes sur le risque de présenter des idées suicidaires. Plus spécifiquement, l’effet de médiation est complet chez les filles par l’intermédiaire de l’agressivité et elle l’est également pour les garçons, par l’intermédiaire de la présence des troubles intériorisés. Contrairement aux résultats anticipés, le désespoir ne prédit pas les idées suicidaires chez les filles ou les garçons. En conclusion, ces résultats de thèse comportent des implications pratiques intéressantes pour la prévention du suicide chez les adolescents. D’abord, les résultats appuient la nécessité d’une procédure de dépistage précoce des troubles mentaux afin de maximiser la prévention des idées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Ensuite, les résultats soutiennent l’importance de considérer les différences sexuelles dans la compréhension des variables associées aux idées suicidaires. Ainsi, il apparaît souhaitable de bien cibler les programmes de prévention et d’intervention selon le sexe de l’adolescent.

Mots-clés : Adolescents — Comportement suicidaire / Suicide — Facteurs de risque / Suicide — Différences entre sexes

2015

Question Olaya, B., Moneta, M., V., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Carta, M., G., Eke, C., Goelitz, D., Keyes, K., M., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., Fermanian, C., Haro, J., M., Kovess, V., (2015). Country-level and individual correlates of overweight and obesity among primary school children: a cross-sectional study in seven European countries. BMC Public Health, 15:475.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: The present study aims to estimate childhood overweight and obesity prevalence and their association with individual and population-level correlates in Eastern and Western European countries. Methods: Data were obtained from the School Children Mental Health in Europe, a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010 in Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania and Turkey. The sample consists of 5,206 school children aged 6 to 11 years old. Information on socio-demographics, children’s height and weight, life-style and parental attitude were reported by the mothers. Country-level indicators were obtained through several data banks. Overweight and obesity in children were calculated according to the international age and gender-specific child Body Mass Index cut-off points. Multivariable logistic regression models included socio-demographic, lifestyle, mothers’ attitude, and country-level indicators to examine the correlates of overweight. Results: Overall prevalence was 15.6% (95% CI = 19.3-21.7%) for overweight and 4.9% (95% CI = 4.3-5.6%) for obesity. In overweight (including obesity), Romanian children had the highest prevalence (31.4%, 95% CI = 28.1-34.6%) and Italian the lowest (10.4%, 95% CI = 8.1-12.6%). Models in the pooled sample showed that being younger (aOR = 0.93, 95% = CI 0.87-0.97), male (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), an only child (aOR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.84), spending more hours per week watching TV (aOR = 1.01, 95% CI =1.002-1.03), and living in an Eastern Country were associated with greater risk of childhood overweight (including obesity). The same predictors were significantly associated with childhood overweight in the model conducted in the Eastern region, but not in the West. Higher Gross Domestic Product and Real Domestic Product, greater number of motor and passenger vehicles, higher percentage of energy available from fat, and more public sector expenditure on health were also associated with lower risk for childhood overweight after adjusting for covariables in the pooled sample and in the east of Europe, but not in the West. Conclusions: Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in school children is still high, especially in Eastern regions, with some socio-demographic factors and life-styles associated with being overweight. It is also in the Eastern region itself where better macro-economic indicators are related with lower rates of childhood overweight. This represents a public health concern that deserves special attention in those countries undertaking economic and political transitions.

Keywords: Overweight, Obesity, School children, Eastern and Western Europe, Individual and population-level correlates

Question DuRivage, N., Keyes, K., Leray, E., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Koç, C., Goelitz, D., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., Fermanian, C., M., Kovess, V., (2015). Parental Use of Corporal Punishment in Europe: Intersection between Public Health and Policy. PLoS ONE 10(2): e0118059. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0118059
AnswerABSTRACT

Studies have linked the use of corporal punishment of children to the development of mental health disorders. Despite the recommendation of international governing bodies for a complete ban of the practice, there is little European data available on the effects of corporal punishment on mental health and the influence of laws banning corporal punishment. Using data from the School Children Mental Health Europe survey, the objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the prevalence and legal status of corporal punishment across six European countries and to evaluate the association between parental use of corporal punishment and children’s mental health. The study found that odds of having parents who reported using occasional to frequent corporal punishment were 1.7 times higher in countries where its use is legal, controlling for socio-demographic factors. Children with parents who reported using corporal punishment had higher rates of both externalized and internalized mental health disorders.

Question Kovess, V., Carta, M., G., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Koç, C., Goelitz, D., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., (2015). The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) Project: Design and First Results. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 11, 113-123.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: The School Children Mental Health in Europe (SCMHE) project aims to build up a set of indicators to collect and monitor children’s mental health in an efficient and comparable methodology across the EU countries. It concerns primary schools children aged 6 to 11 years a range where few data are available whereas school interventions are promising. Methods: Three informants were used: parents, teachers and children. In selecting instruments language, instruments were selected according to the easiness to translate them: SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) for parents and teachers and DI (Dominic Interactive). A two-step procedure was used: schools randomization then six children by class in each grade. Results: 9084 children from seven countries (Italy, Netherlands, Germany, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, and Turkey) completed the Dominic Interactive in their own language. 6563 teachers and 6031 parents completed their questionnaire, and a total of 5574 interviews have been completed by the 3 informants. The participation rate of the children with parents in the participating schools was about 66.4%. As expected teachers report more externalised problems and less internalised problems than parents. Children report more internalised problems than parents and teachers. Boys have consistently more externalised problems than girls and this is the reverse for internalised problems. Combining the diverse informants and impairment levels children with problems requiring some sort of mental health care were about 9.9%: 76% did not see any mental health professional: 78,7% In Eastern countries 63,1% in Western Europe.

Keyword: Children, Dominique interactive, epidemiological survey, Europe, mental health, strengths and difficulties questionnaire.

Question Kovess-Masfety, V., Pilowsky, D., J., Goelitz, D., Kuijpers, R., Otten, R., Moro, M., F., Bitfoi, A., Koç, C., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Hanson, G., Fermanian, C., Pez, O., Carta, M., G., (2015). Suicidal ideation and mental health disorders in young school children across Europe. Journal of Affective Disorders, 177, 28–35.
AnswerABSTRACT

Introduction: The aim of this study is to measure the prevalence of suicidal ideation and thoughts of death in elementary school children in a European survey and to determine the associated socio-demographic and clinical factors. Methods: Data refer to children aged 6–12 (N¼7062) from Italy, Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Germany, and the Netherlands randomly selected in primary schools. Suicidal thoughts and death ideation were measured using a computerized pictorial diagnostic tool from the Dominic Interactive (DI) completed by the children. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was administrated to teachers and parents along with a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results: Suicidal ideation was present in16.96 % of the sample (from9.9 in Italy to 26.84 in Germany), death thoughts by 21.93 % (from 7.71 % in Italy to 32.78 in Germany). SI and DT were more frequent in single-parent families and large families. Externalizing disorders were strongly correlated with SI and DT after controlling for other factors and this was true for internalizing disorders only when reported by the children. Conclusion: Recognizing suicidal ideation in young children may be recommended as part of preventive strategies such as screening in the context of the presence of any mental health problems whether externalizing or internalizing.

Question Kovess, V., Keyes, K., M., Hamilton, A., Pez, O., Bitfoi, A., Koç, C., Goelitz, D., Kuijpers, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., Fermanian, C., Pilowsky, D., J., Susser, E., (2015). Maternal smoking and offspring inattention and hyperactivity: results from a cross‑national European survey. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 24, 8, 919–929.
AnswerABSTRACT

In utero exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with adverse neonatal outcomes; the association with later childhood mental health outcomes remains controversial. We used a strategy involving comparison of maternal and paternal smoking reports in a sample pooling data from six diverse European countries. Data were drawn from mother (N = 4,517) and teacher (N = 4,611) reported attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school children aged 6–11 in Turkey, Romania, Bulgaria, Lithuania, Germany, and the Netherlands, surveyed in 2010. Mothers report on self and husband’s smoking patterns during the pregnancy period. Logistic regression used with control covariates including demographics, maternal distress, live births, region, and post-pregnancy smoking. In unadjusted models, maternal prenatal smoking was associated with probable ADHD based on mother [Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.82, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 1.45–2.29], teacher (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.33–2.14) and mother plus teacher (OR = 1.49, 95 % CI 1.03–2.17) report. Paternal prenatal smoking was similarly associated with probable ADHD in unadjusted models. When controlled for relevant confounders, maternal prenatal smoking remained a risk factor for offspring probable ADHD based on mother report (OR = 1.44, 95 % CI 1.06–1.96), whereas the effect of paternal prenatal smoking diminished (e.g., mother report: OR = 1.17, 95 % CI 0.92–1.49). Drawing on data from a diverse set of countries across Europe, we document that the association between maternal smoking and offspring ADHD is stronger than that of paternal smoking during the pregnancy period and offspring ADHD. To the extent that confounding is shared between parents, these results reflect a potential intrauterine influence of smoking on ADHD in children.

Keywords: ADHD, Hyperactivity, Smoking, Prenatal smoking, In utero tobacco

Question Vandentorren, S., Le Méner, E., Oppenchaim, N., Arnaud, A., Jangal, C., Caum, C., Vuillermoz, C., Martin-Fernandez, J., Lioret, S., Roze, M., Le Strat, Y., Guyavarch, E., (2015). Characteristics and health of homeless families: the ENFAMS survey in the Paris region, France 2013. European Journal of Public Health, 26, 1, 71–76.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: The objectives were to estimate the size of homeless family population in Paris region, to describe their living conditions and health and to analyse the impact of homelessness on children’s growth and development, which was never investigated in France. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of homeless sheltered families in 2013. Families were interviewed in 17 languages and a nurse took anthropometric measures, blood samples and collected health data from child health reports. Results: The population size was estimated at 10 280 families. Half were single-parent female families and 94% were born outside France. Most families had experienced housing instability and 94% were living below the poverty line (828 euros/month). Malnutrition was a major problem: the prevalence of food insecurity was high (77% of parents and 69% of children), as well as anaemia (50% of mothers and 38% of children), overweight (38% of mothers and 22% of children) and obesity (32% of mothers and 4% of children). High rates of depressive disorders were found in 30% of homeless mothers and 20% of children had signs of possible mental health disorders. Discussion: These first results highlight the important number of families among the homeless population in Paris region. Families differed from other homeless people regarding social characteristics such as birthplace, single-parent status and residential instability that are likely to influence schooling, social ties, health and access to care. These results demonstrate the need for urgent actions targeting homeless families, in terms of reducing housing instability and providing adequate care, especially for children.

Question Kuijpers, R., Kleinjan, M., Engels, R., Stone, L., L., Otten, R., (2015). Child Self-report to Identify Internalizing and Externalizing Problems and the Influence of Maternal Mental Health. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 24, 6, 1605–1614.
AnswerABSTRACT

The continuity, co-occurrence, and co-development of child internalizing and externalizing problems have been extensively studied and considered to be causally related either directly (directional model) or indirectly through an underlying shared or related liability factor (common vulnerability model). This study used child self-report to avoid rater bias in determining the continuity and cross-development of child internalizing and externalizing problems over a 1-year period, examining both direct pathway and indirect pathway by using maternal mental health as underlying explanatory mechanism. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized child self-report instrument, was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems in 178 primary school children, aged 6–11 years old, over a 1-year time interval. Their mothers reported on their own maternal mental health at baseline. A cross-lagged path model was tested using Structural Equation Modeling. The results confirmed the stability of child-reported internalizing and externalizing problems but showed no cross-developmental paths. Maternal mental health at baseline was related to child externalizing behavior 1 year later. The theoretical explanations involve the developmental timing of the cross-developmental paths and the strong co-occurrence of internalizing and externalizing problems at both time-points. This study showed the value of the Dominic Interactive as a child self-report instrument in addition to other informant measures in assessing child mental health problems over longer periods, especially when maternal mental health is involved. Furthermore, deprived maternal mental health warrants clinical attention to prevent externalizing problems in primary school children.

Keywords: Child self-report, Maternal mental health, Internalizing problems, Externalizing problems, Co-morbidity

Question Demeulemeester, M., Kochman, F., Fligans, B., Tabet, A., J., Thomas, P., Jardri , R., (2015). Assessing early-onset hallucinations in the touch-screen generation. The British Journal of Psychiatry. 206, 3, 181-183.
AnswerABSTRACT

The increasing development of apps for digital devices provides an opportunity for new instruments to assess hallucinations in young individuals. Here we present the Multisensory HAllucinations Scale for Children (MHASC), dedicated to assessing complex early-onset hallucinations. The MHASC will soon be translated into multilanguage versions with the support of the International Consortium of Hallucination Research.

Question Kochanska, G., Brock, R.,L., Chen, K., H., Aksan, N., Anderson, S., W., (2015). Paths from Mother-Child and Father-Child Relationships to Externalizing Behavior Problems in Children Differing in Electrodermal Reactivity: a Longitudinal Study from Infancy to Age 10. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. 43, 4, 721–734.
AnswerABSTRACT

Electrodermal hyporeactivity (or low skin conductance level, SCL) has been long established as a correlate of and diathesis for antisocial behavior, aggression, disregard for rules of conduct and feelings of others, and generally, externalizing behavior problems in children and adults. Much less is known, however, about how individual differences in children’s SCL and qualities of their early experiences in relationships with parents interact to produce antisocial outcomes. In a community sample of 102 families (51 girls), we examined children’s SCL, assessed in standard laboratory tasks at age 8 (N = 81), as a moderator of the links between parent–child socialization history and children’s externalizing behavior problems at ages 8 and 10, reported by mothers and fathers in well-established instruments and by children in clinical interviews. Mother- and father-child socialization history was assessed in frequent, intensive observations. Parent–child mutually responsive orientation (MRO) was observed from infancy to age 10, parental power assertion was observed from 15 months to age 6 ½, and children reported their attachment security in interviews at age 8 and 10. For children with lower SCL, variations in mothers’ power assertion and father-child MRO were associated with parent-rated externalizing problems. The former interaction was consistent with diathesis-stress, and the latter with differential susceptibility. For children with higher SCL, there were no links between socialization history and externalizing problems.

Keywords: Parent–child relationship, Skin conductance level, Externalizing problems, Longitudinal studies

Question Kuijpers, R., (2015). Challenges in Child Self-Report. Radboud Repository, Nijmegen, Netherland. http://hdl. handle. net/2066/139475.
Answer
Question Cross, W., West, J., Wyman, P., A., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Xia, Y., Tu, X., Teisl, M., Brown, C.H., Forgatch, M., (2015). Observational Measures of Implementer Fidelity for a School-Based Preventive Intervention: Development, Reliability, and Validity. Prevention Science. 16, 1, 122–132.
AnswerABSTRACT

Current measures of implementer fidelity often fail to adequately measure core constructs of adherence and competence, and their relationship to outcomes can be mixed. To address these limitations, we used observational methods to assess these constructs and their relationships to proximal outcomes in a randomized trial of a school-based preventive intervention (Rochester Resilience Project) designed to strengthen emotion self-regulation skills in first–third graders with elevated aggressive–disruptive behaviors. Within the intervention group (n = 203), a subsample (n = 76) of students was selected to reflect the overall sample. Implementers were 10 paraprofessionals. Videotaped observations of three lessons from year 1 of the intervention (14 lessons) were coded for each implementer–child dyad on adherence (content) and competence (quality). Using multilevel modeling, we examined how much of the variance in the fidelity measures was attributed to implementer and to the child within implementer. Both measures had large and significant variance accounted for by implementer (competence, 68 %; adherence, 41 %); child within implementer did not account for significant variance indicating that ratings reflected stable qualities of the implementer rather than the child. Raw adherence and competence scores shared 46 % of variance (r = .68). Controlling for baseline differences and age, the amount (adherence) and quality (competence) of program delivered predicted children’s enhanced response to the intervention on both child and parent reports after 6 months, but not on teacher report of externalizing behavior. Our findings support the use of multiple observations for measuring fidelity and that adherence and competence are important components of fidelity which could be assessed by many programs using these methods.

Keywords: Implementer fidelity, Measurement, Adherence, Competence, Observation

Question Fahim, C., (2015). Lobewise Correlates of Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Categorical or Dimensional? NeuroBridges. Université Paris Descartes.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: The categorical approach commonly used to study mental disorders has been criticized as too restraining and unlikely to capture the underlying neurobiology. The dimensional approach assumes that they represent extreme variants of typical behaviors along a continuum. Here, we examined the cortical morphological correlates of externalizing (EXT) and internalizing (INT) behaviors in a healthy sample of adolescent monozygotic twins, and how maternal behaviors are associated with adolescent cortical morphology. Method: Lobewise cortical morphology (i.e., cortical thickness [Cth], surface area [SA], gyrification index [GI], cortical volume [CV] and cortical complexity [CC]) was extensively assessed in 108 monozygotic twins (54 pairs: 46 boys and 62 girls, age 15 years-old), using the Civet pipeline of the Montreal Neurological Institute. EXT and INT behaviors were assessed using the computerized version of the Dominic Interactive. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed using the Symptom Check List (SCL-90). Relationships between brain morphology, adolescent’s behavior and maternal parenting during childhood were analyzed using mixed general linear models and automatic linear modeling (ALM), while controlling for sex and total brain volume. Results We found significant linear negative associations (p≤0.05) between (1) EXT behaviors and frontal Cth bilaterally and parietal GI bilaterally; (2) between INT behaviors and right parietal Cth, right parietal and left temporal CV. ALM analysis (p≤0.01) revealed that hemispheric thickness within twins brain morphology was most strongly associated with EXT. Conversely, maternal depressive symptoms during childhood was most strongly associated with INT. Conclusions Considering EXT and INT behaviors as a continuum in a healthy homogeneous adolescent twin population, our results are in line with well-established findings in clinical populations. We provided an extensive lobewise morphological assessment of two of the major mental behaviors’ spectra and surmounted confounders such as sample heterogeneity, age differences, disease onset, medication, substance abuse and comorbidity. Our results may provide empirical evidence for the notion that a dimensional diagnostic approach is preferred to the categorical approach, preparing for the future inclusion of genetic, imaging, biochemical elements to psychiatric diagnoses.

Question Richard, R., Marcotte, D., (2015). Les facteurs associés à la concomitance entre l'anxiété et la dépression chez de jeunes adolescents. Canadian Journal of Education /Revue canadienne de l’éducation. 38, 1, 1-23.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

Cette étude a pour but de mesurer différentes variables psychosociales pouvant être associées à la formation d’une concomitance entre l’anxiété et la dépression dans le contexte de la transition primaire-secondaire, à partir d’un échantillon de 146 élèves (moyenne de 11,22 ans). En 6e année, les fi lles anxieuses ont un plus faible rendement scolaire que les fi lles non anxieuses, alors que l’anxiété n’affecte pas le rendement des garçons. En 2e secondaire, les élèves anxieux-dépressifs vivent plus de confl its familiaux que leurs pairs anxieux et perçoivent marginalement moins de soutien de leurs amis. Finalement, la présence de confl its familiaux chez les élèves anxieux de 6e année, est marginalement associée à la formation d’une concomitance en 2e secondaire. Ces résultats soulèvent l’importance d’intervenir tôt auprès des élèves anxieux, avant que se forme un trouble concomitant avec la dépression.

Mots clés : adolescence, anxiété, concomitance, dépression

Question Marilou Cournoyer, M., Labelle, R., Bergeron, L., (2015). Troubles mentaux, impulsivité, agressivité et idées suicidaires chez les adolescents. Revue québécoise de psychologie, 36(3), 59-79
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

L’objectif est de déterminer quelles sont les variables développementales (âge, sexe), environnementales (évènements de vie), personnelles (impulsivité et agressivité) et les troubles mentaux (dépression, anxiété, comportements perturbateurs) susceptibles d’expliquer la présence d’idées suicidaires chez les adolescents de 12 à 17 ans d’un échantillon scolaire. Deux cent trente-six adolescents ont participé à l’étude. Seize pourcent présentaient des idées suicidaires. Les résultats de la régression hiérarchique indiquent que le sexe (fille), les évènements de vie, l’agressivité et la dépression contribuent à expliquer en partie les idées suicidaires. Selon ces résultats, l’impulsivité ne contribue pas significativement à la compréhension des idées suicidaires. L’implication de cette recherche sera discutée.

MOTS CLÉS : troubles mentaux, impulsivité, agressivité, idées suicidaires, adolescents

ABSTRACT

This study aims to determine what are the developmental variables (age and gender), environmental variables (number of unfortunate life events in the past year), personal variables (impulsivity and aggression) and mental disorders (depression, anxiety and disruptive behaviors) that could explain the presence of suicidal ideations in adolescents aged 12 to 17 from a school based sample. A total of 236 adolescents participated in the present study. Results from hierarchical regression suggest that girls, life events, aggression and depression predict a significant part of the suicide ideations variance. Those results didn’t indicate a significant role of impulsivity. Implications will be discussed.

KEY WORDS: mental disorders, impulsivity, aggression, suicidal thoughts, adolescent

2014

Question Lee, E., J., Keyes, K., Bitfoi, A., Mihova, Z., Pez, O., Yoon, E., Kovess-Masfety, V., (2014). Mental health disparities between Roma and non-Roma children in Romania and Bulgaria. BMC Psychiatry, 14:297.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: The Roma population, one of the largest minority groups in Europe, experience discrimination and stigma associated with marginalized social position. Few studies have examined mental illnesses in the Roma, and none have examined the Roma children. The present study estimates mental health and behavioral disorders among Roma children in comparison to non-Roma children in educational institutions. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health Study in Europe (SCHME) study in Romania (Roma children identified by parent report, N = 70; non-Roma, N = 925) and Bulgaria (Roma children identified by exclusively-Roma schools, N = 65; non-Roma, N = 1312). The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was given to the parents and teachers to measure child mental health; children reported on their mental health through the Dominique Interactive. Control covariates included child sex and age, and parental characteristics when parent reports were available. Results: Based on the child’s own report, Roma children had a higher odds of any internalizing disorder (OR = 2.99, 95% C.I. 2.07–4.30), phobias (OR = 4.84, 95% C.I. 3.19–7.35), separation anxiety disorder (OR = 2.54, 95% C.I. 1.72–3.76), generalized anxiety disorder (OR = 2.95, 95% C.I. 1.75–4.96), and major depressive disorder (OR = 3.86, 95% C.I. 2.31–6.37). Further Roma children had a higher odds of any externalizing disorder (OR = 2.84, 95% C.I. 1.78–4.54), oppositional defiant disorder (OR = 3.35, 95% C.I. 1.93–5.82), ADHD (OR = 2.37, 95% C.I. 1.26–4.46), and conduct disorder (OR = 3.63, 95% C.I. 2.04–6.46). Based on the report of teachers, Roma children had higher odds of emotional problems (OR = 2.03, 95% C.I. 1.20-3.44), peer-relational problems (OR = 2.76, 95% C.I. 1.73-4.41) and prosocial behavior (OR = 2.75, 95% C.I. 1.75-4.33). Conclusion: Roma children experience a higher burden of mental health problems compared with their non-Roma counterparts. Attention to child health and mental health among the Roma is urgently needed, as these children experience a constellation of health problems associated with poverty as well as experiences of stigma and discrimination.

Keywords : Roma, Mental Health, Romania, Bulgaria, Europe

Question Keyes, K., M., Susser, E., Pilowsky, D., J., Hamilton, A., Bitfoi, A., Goelitz, D., Kuijper, R., Lesinskiene, S., Mihova, Z., Otten, R., Kovess, V., (2014). The health consequences of child mental health problems and parenting styles: Unintentional injuries among European schoolchildren. Preventive Medicine, 67, 182-188.
AnswerABSTRACT

Objective: Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death for schoolchildren. We assessed the association between externalizing psychopathology, parenting style, and unintentional injury in European children in the community. Methods: Data were drawn from the School Children Mental Health in Europe project and included 4517 schoolchildren across seven diverse European regions. Past-year injuries serious enough to seek medical attention were reported by mothers. Child mental health problems were assessed using validated measures and reported by the mothers, teachers, and children. Parenting styles were based on The Parenting Scale and the Parent Behaviors and Attitudes Questionnaire. Results: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and oppositional defiant symptoms had a higher risk of injury compared to other children whether based on parent report (OR = 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.2–1.9), teacher report (OR = 1.36, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.7), or parent and teacher report combined (OR = 1.53, 95% C.I. 1.1–2.1). Children who self-reported oppositional symptoms also had higher risk of injury (OR = 1.6, 95% C.I. 1.1–2.4). Low-caring behavior of parents increased the risk of injury (OR = 1.4, 95% C.I. 1.1–1.9).

Conclusion: Unintentional injury is a potential adverse health consequence of child externalizing problems. Interventions to improve parent–child relationships and prevention as well as focused treatment for externalizing problems may reduce the burden of injury.

Keywords: Unintentional injury, ADHD, Conduct, Oppositional disorder, Parenting style, Caring.

Question Constant, A., Dulioust, J., Wazana, A., Shojaei, T., Pitrou, I., Kovess-Masfety, V., (2014). Utility of self-reported mental health measures for preventing unintentional injury: results from a cross-sectional study among French schoolchildren . BMC Pediatrics201414:2.
AnswerABSTRACT

Background: Identify children at-risk of having mental health problems is of value to prevent injury. But the limited agreement between informants might jeopardize prevention initiatives. The aims of the present study were 1) to test the concordance between parents and children reports, and 2) to investigate their relationships with parental reports of children’ unintentional injuries. Methods: In a population-based sample of 1258 children aged 6 to 11, the associations between child psychopathology (using the Dominic Interactive and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and unintentional injuries in the past 12 months were examined in univariate and multivariate models. Results: As compared to children, parents tended to overestimate behavior problems and hyperactivity/inattention, and underestimate emotional symptoms. Unintentional injury in the last 12-month period was reported in 184 out of 1258 children (14.6%) and multivariate analyses showed that the risk of injury was twice as high in children self-reporting hyperactivity/inattention as compared to others. However this association was not retrieved with the parent-reported instrument. Conclusion: Our findings support evidence that child-reported measures of psychopathology might provide relevant information for screening and injury prevention purposes, even at a young age. It could be used routinely in combination with others validated tools.

Keywords: ADHD, Injury, School children, Screening, Infant mental health, Self-report

Question Boldt, L., J., Kochanska, G., Yoon, J., E., Koenig Nordling, J., (2014). Children’s attachment to both parents from toddler age to middle childhood: links to adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Attachment and Human Development, 16, 3, 211-229.
AnswerABSTRACT

We examined children’s attachment security with their mothers and fathers in a community sample (N = 100). At 25 months, mothers, fathers, and trained observers completed Attachment Q-Set (AQS). At 100 months, children completed Kerns Security Scale (KSS) for each parent. Children’s adaptation (behavior problems and competence in broader ecologies of school and peer group, child- and parent-reported) was assessed at 100 months. Generally, the child’s security with the mother and father was modestly to robustly concordant across both relationships, depending on the assessment method. Observers’ AQS security scores predicted children’s self-reported security six years later. For children with low AQS security scores with mothers, variations in security with fathers had significant implications for adaptation. Those whose security with fathers was also low reported the most behavior problems and were seen as least competent in broader ecologies, but those whose security with fathers was high reported few problems and were seen as competent. Observer-rated security with fathers predicted children’s higher competence in broader ecologies, both self- and parent-reported. A cumulative index of the history of security from toddler age to middle childhood, integrating measures across both relationships and diverse methodologies, was significantly associated with positive adaptation at 100 months.

Keywords: children’s attachment, behavior problems, competence

Question Tan, T., X., Travis, M., (2014). Mother-Daughter Agreement on Adolescent Adopted Chinese Girls' Academic Performance and Internalizing Symptoms. School Psychology Forum, 8, 2, 103-112.
AnswerABSTRACT

This study reported mother-daughter agreement on adolescent adopted Chinese girls’ adjustment. Data on the girls’ academic performance and internalizing syndromes were collected from the adopted Chinese girls and their adoptive mothers separately. The adoptive mothers also provided data on mother-daughter relationship quality. There were 219 girls who were in secondary schools and were 13.6 years (SD 5 2.1) and were adopted from China at 17.4 months (SD 5 18.2). Consistent with existing literature on nonadopted adolescents, the mother-daughter agreement on the adopted Chinese girls’ adjustment was modest to moderate. Age of the girls positively correlated with self-reported anxiety, depression, and attention problems. Better mother-daughter relationship quality was positively correlated with mother-reported and self-reported academic performance but negatively correlated with mother-reported depression, social problems, and attention problems and with self-reported depression. Finally, mother-daughter relationship quality was negatively correlated with mother-daughter discrepancy in adoptees’ anxiety, depression, and attention problems. Implications of these findings for the practice of school psychologists were discussed.

Question Lecompte, Vanessa (2014). « Étude longitudinale de facteurs associés aux symptômes de troubles intériorisés et extériorisés à la préadolescence et à l'adolescence » Thèse. Montréal (Québec, Canada), Université du Québec à Montréal, Doctorat en psychologie.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

Cette thèse de doctorat a pour but d’évaluer le lien longitudinal de l’attachement entre 3 et 5 ans et les problèmes de comportement à la préadolescence et à l’adolescence, en plus d’examiner les facteurs individuels et familiaux pouvant expliquer ces associations. Le premier article examine l’association entre l’attachement à l’âge préscolaire et les symptômes d’anxiété et de dépression à la préadolescence, ainsi que le rôle médiateur de l’estime de soi. L’échantillon est composé de 68 dyades mère-enfant recrutées par le biais de garderies de la région de Montréal. L’attachement mère-enfant a été évalué à 3 ans à l’aide de la procédure de Séparation-Réunion adaptée pour les enfants d’âge préscolaire. À l’âge de 11 ans, les symptômes d’anxiété et de dépression ont été évalués à l’aide d’une mesure d’autoévaluation, le Dominique interactif. L’estime de soi a été évaluée à l’aide du Self-Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). Les résultats suggèrent que les préadolescents ayant un attachement désorganisé à l’âge préscolaire présentent davantage de symptômes d’anxiété et de dépression, ainsi qu’une estime de soi plus faible que les enfants ayant un attachement insécurisant-organisé. L’estime de soi est un médiateur partiel de l’association entre la désorganisation à l’âge préscolaire et la dépression à la préadolescence, mais le modèle n’a pas été supporté pour l’anxiété. Ces résultats soutiennent les hypothèses de l’étude en suggérant que l’attachement désorganisé à l’âge préscolaire pose possiblement un risque pour le développement ultérieur de symptômes d’anxiété et de dépression. De plus, ces mêmes enfants semblent plus à risque de développer une faible estime de soi, qui agit également comme médiateur partiel de l’association entre la désorganisation à l’âge préscolaire et la dépression à la préadolescence. Le second article examine l’association entre l’attachement désorganisé en début d’âge scolaire et les problèmes extériorisés en début d’adolescence. L’un des objectifs est de déterminer l’influence des interactions mère-enfant caractérisées par le renversement de rôle ainsi que l’impuissance parentale dans l’association entre la désorganisation et les symptômes de troubles extériorisés. L’échantillon est constitué de 136 dyades mère-enfant recrutées par le biais de garderies francophones de la région de Montréal. À l’âge de 5 ans, l’attachement mère-enfant a été évalué à l’aide de la procédure de Séparation-Réunion adaptée pour les enfants en début d’âge scolaire, et les interactions mères-enfants ont été observées et codées à partir d’une période de collation. À 13 ans, les symptômes de troubles extériorisés ont été évalués par l’adolescent et la mère à l’aide du Youth Self-Report (YSR), et le sentiment d’impuissance maternelle a été évalué à l’aide du questionnaire Caregiving Helplessness répondu par la mère. Les résultats de cette deuxième étude suggèrent que les enfants ayant un attachement désorganisé en début d’âge scolaire semblent avoir des interactions avec leur mère caractérisées par le renversement de rôle, semblent présenter davantage de symptômes extériorisés auto-rapportés à l’adolescence que les autres enfants, et ont tendance à avoir des mères qui rapportent se sentir impuissantes face à leur enfant. De plus, des différences significatives ont été trouvées entre les différents sous-types de désorganisation et les variables à l’étude. Les enfants ayant un attachement contrôlant-punitif présentent le plus de risques comparativement aux enfants présentant de la désorganisation comportementale et ceux ayant un attachement contrôlant-attentionné en termes de symptômes extériorisés auto-rapportés et d’impuissance maternelle. Les interactions mère-enfants caractérisées par le renversement de rôle ainsi que l’impuissance parentale se sont révélés être des médiateurs partiels de l’association entre l’attachement contrôlant-punitif à 5 ans et les symptômes extériorisés rapportés par l’adolescent à 13 ans. Au plan théorique, cette thèse met en évidence les liens directs’ et indirects de l’attachement et les problèmes de comportements intériorisés et extériorisés. Sur le plan appliqué, ces résultats soutiennent l’importance d’intervenir tôt auprès des dyades parent-enfant afin de prévenir les difficultés d’adaptation ultérieures.

Question Lecompte, V., Moss, E., (2014). Disorganized and Controlling Patterns of Attachment, Role Reversal, and Caregiving Helplessness: Links to Adolescents’ Externalizing Problems. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 84,5, 581-589.
AnswerABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate longitudinal associations between attachment at early school age and the development of externalizing symptoms in adolescence. The mediating roles of maternal helplessness and role reversal were also examined. Attachment classifications of 136 children (63 boys and 73 girls) and quality of mother–child interactions (role reversal) were observed at ages 5–6 using the separation–reunion procedure (Main & Cassidy, 1988). At age 13, externalizing problems reported by both the adolescent and the mother (Youth Self-Report; Achenbach, 1991), and caregiving helplessness reported by the mother (Caregiving Helplessness Questionnaire; George, Coulson, & Magana, 1997) were evaluated. Results indicated that children with disorganized attachment to their caregivers evidenced the most maladaptive patterns compared with children with secure attachment, displaying high externalizing symptoms and having mothers reporting more helplessness. Significant differences found among the disorganization subtypes indicated that the controlling–punitive subgroup had more maladaptive patterns across variables than did the behaviorally disorganized and controlling–caregiving subgroups. These findings support the idea that early attachment, mother–child interaction quality, and caregiving helplessness should be central themes in prevention and intervention programs with mother–child dyads.

Question Lecompte, V., Moss, E., Cyr, C., Pascuzzo, K., (2014). Preschool attachment, self-esteem and the development of preadolescent anxiety and depressive symptoms. Attachment and Human Development, 16, 3, 242-260.
AnswerABSTRACT

This study examined the longitudinal association between preschool attachment patterns, the development of anxiety and depression at preadolescence and the mediational role of self-esteem. Child–mother attachment classifications of 68 children (33 girls) were assessed between 3–4 years of age (M = 3.7 years, SD = 4.4 months) using the Separation-Reunion Procedure. At age 11–12 (M = 11.7 years, SD = 4.3 months), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Dominic Interactive Questionnaire), and self-esteem (Self-Perception Profile for Children) were also evaluated. Preadolescents who had shown disorganized attachment at preschool age scored higher on both anxiety and depression and lower on self-esteem than those who had shown secure and insecure-organized attachment strategies. Self-esteem was a partial mediator of the association between preschool disorganization and symptoms of preadolescent depression, but the model was not supported for anxiety. These findings support the idea that early attachment and self-esteem should be central themes in prevention programs with young children.

Keywords: parent–child attachment, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, preadolescence

Question Ismaylova, E., (2014). The impact of early life adversity on cortical structure in adolescent twins followed since birth, Thèses et mémoires électroniques de l’Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal.
AnswerRÉSUMÉ

Des études animales ont montré que l’exposition du foetus à l’adversité affecte le développement cérébral et la régulation d’émotions plus tard. Cette régulation serait reliée aux changements structurels cérébraux, particulièrement au circuit fronto-limbique. Cependant, ces résultats n’ont pas été entièrement répliqués chez l’humain. Le but de cette étude était de tester si l’adversité précoce conduit à des altérations structurelles des régions (orbitofrontal, préfrontal, cingulaire) fronto-limbiques, identifiées comme régions-clés dans la (de)régulation d’émotions. Les mesures principales de l’adversité étaient un poids léger à la naissance et l’hostilité maternelle puisqu’ils étaient parmi les plus prédictifs des résultats développementaux et comportementaux chez l’humain. Les mesures secondaires, incluant le tempérament difficile d’enfant et l’impulsivité en adolescence, étaient utilisées du à leur lien avec le développement cérébral et émotionnel. Les participants étaient des jumeaux identiques, membres de l’Étude des Jumeaux Nouveau-nés du Québec (ÉJNQ, N = 650 paires) suivis depuis 5 mois à 15 ans, leur âge actuel. Ceci a permis de mieux contrôler le facteur génétique et ainsi mieux isoler les effets d’environnement. Trente-sept paires ont été recrutées. La structure cérébrale de chacun, obtenue avec l’imagerie par résonance magnétique, a été analysée avec la régression linéaire. Le poids à la naissance n’a eu aucun effet. L’hostilité maternelle a prédit une réduction de l’aire du gyrus cingulaire postérieur. Tempérament difficile a prédit une réduction de l’aire du cortex orbitofrontal. L’impulsivité était associée avec l’aire et volume du cortex préfrontal réduits. Ces résultats soulignent l’importance des interventions précoces afin d’empêcher des altérations menant à la psychopathologie.

ABSTRACT

Animal studies have shown that fetal exposure to adversity affects brain development and emotion regulation later on. Emotion regulation would be related to a structural change in the brain, particularly the fronto-limbic circuitry. However, results have not been entirely confirmed in humans. The purpose of the present study was to test whether early adversity leads to structural changes in the fronto-limbic (prefrontal, orbitofrontal and cingulate) regions, previously identified as key areas in emotion (dys)regulation. Main measures of adversity were low birth weight and maternal hostility because these were among the best predictors of developmental and behavioral outcomes in humans. Secondary measures, including difficult child temperament and adolescent impulsivity, were used because of their link with brain and emotion development. Participants were identical twins part of Quebec Study of Newborn Twins (QSNT, N = 650 pairs), followed from 5 months to 15 years, their current age. Using identical twins allowed to better control the genetic factors and, thus, to better isolate the specific effects of early environment. Thirty-seven pairs have been recruited. Each twin’s brain structure was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging and analyzed using linear regression. Birth weight showed no effect on brain structure. Maternal hostility predicted a reduction in cortical area of posterior cingulate gyrus. Difficult child temperament predicted a reduction in cortical area of orbitofrontal cortex. Impulsivity was associated with smaller cortical area and volume in prefrontal cortex. These results highlight the importance of the early interventions in order to prevent the alterations leading to development of psychopathology.

Keywords: Adversité, Cerveau, Structure, Développement, Adversity, Brain Structure, Development, Health Sciences – Mental Health / Sciences de la santé – Santé mentale